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WH Chapter 4 Section 5 Notes


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WH Chapter 4 Section 5 Notes

  1. 1. Section 5 Notes
  2. 2.  Shi Huangdi---means “first emperor”  Zheng proclaimed himself this title  Shi Huangdi built the strong, authoritarian government of the Qin dynasty  Unified all of China---banned feudalism and replaced feudal states with 36 military districts  Capital of the Qin dynasty was at Xianyang
  3. 3.  To promote unity, Shi Huangdi standardized weights and measures and replaced the diverse coins of the Zhou states with Qin coins  Shi Huangdi cracked down on opposition---he jailed, tortured, and killed people who opposed his rule---he also burned all literature and philosophy books only sparing books on medicine and agriculture
  4. 4.  Shi Huangdi’s most remarkable and costly achievement was the Great Wall  Hundreds of thousands of laborers worked for years through bitter cold and burning heat  They pounded earth and stone into a mountainous wall almost 25 feet high topped with a wide brick road  Eventually, the Great Wall would snake its way across thousands of miles of northern China  The wall became an important symbol to the Chinese people---dividing and protecting their civilized world from the nomadic peoples north of the wall
  5. 5.  Let’s watch a video on the Great Wall of China!!!  nCwA&feature=player_detailpage
  6. 6.  Shi Huangdi thought his empire would last forever (doesn’t everyone!)  After his death in 210 B.C., anger over heavy taxes, forced labor, and cruel policies exploded into revolts  Shi Huandi’s tomb is quite impressive!!!
  7. 7.  Let’s watch a video about Shi Huangdi’s tomb!!!  VtsQ&feature=player_detailpage
  8. 8.  Liu Bang, an illiterate peasant leader, defeated rival armies and founded the new Han dynasty  Liu Bang claimed that his power was based on the Mandate of Heaven  As emperor, he took the title Gao Zu and restored order and justice to his empire  He appointed Confucian scholars as his advisers  The Han dynasty lasted from 206 B.C.-220 A.D.
  9. 9.  The most famous Han emperor was Wudi  He strengthened the government and economy, chose officials from Confucian scholars, and set up an imperial university at Xian  Economic growth was increased by improving canals and roads  He set up granaries set up across the empire so the government could buy surplus grain and sell it at stable prices when it was scarce  Set up a government monopoly on iron and salt-- -the sale of iron and salt gave the government a source of income other than taxes on the peasants
  10. 10.  Wudi’s expansionist policy increased the amount of territory under Chinese control  He fought many battles to expand China’s borders and drive nomadic peoples beyond the Great Wall  Chinese armies added outposts in Manchuria, Korea, northern Vietnam, Tibet, and Central Asia  Soldiers, traders, and settlers slowly spread Chinese influence across these areas
  11. 11.  Wudi opened up the Silk Road that linked China to the west for centuries  The Chinese traded silk for goods from the west such as grapes, figs, cucumbers, walnuts, furs from Central Asia, glass from Rome, or muslin from India  Eventually the Silk Road stretched for 4,000 miles linking China to the Fertile Crescent  Goods were relayed in stages from one set of traders to another
  12. 12.  Han emperors made Confucianism the official belief system of the state  A scholar-official was expected to match the Confucian idea of a gentlemen--- courteous, dignified, and possess a thorough knowledge of history, music, poetry, and Confucian teachings  Han emperors believed government officials should get jobs based on merit rather than family backgrounds
  13. 13.  Began a system of exams to find the most qualified government officials  Civil service exams were given at the local, provincial, and national levels  Usually only the wealthy could afford the years of studying to pass the exams; women were closed out of government jobs
  14. 14.  Eventually the Han empire began to collapse  Local warlords began to gain more power  Weak emperors let canals and roads break down  Peasants revolted over the heavy taxes and crushing debt  In 220 A.D., the last Han emperor was overthrown  China then broke up into different states with some controlled by outside invaders
  15. 15.  Han scientists wrote books on chemistry, zoology, botany, and other subjects  Observed and measured movements of the stars and planets---helped to improve calendars  Invented a simple seismograph to detect and measure earthquakes  Wang Chong---believed that comets and eclipses WERE NOT caused by heaven’s anger  He also believed that no scientific theories should be accepted unless they were supported by proof
  16. 16.  xpJE&feature=player_detailpage
  17. 17.  Chinese physicians diagnosed diseases, experimented with herbal remedies, and developed anesthetics  Some doctors explored the medical use of acupuncture  Acupuncture---inserting needles under the skin at specific points to relieve pain or illness
  18. 18.  qAxo&feature=player_detailpage
  19. 19.  In it’s time, Han China was the most technologically advanced civilization in the world  Made durable paper out of wood pulp  Invented the rudder to steer ships  Invented wheelbarrows, suspension bridges, and chain pumps
  20. 20.  Shi Huangdi, Gao Zu, Wudi, and later Han rulers forged a vast and varied land into a united China  Han rulers created an empire roughly the size of the continental United States  During this period, Chinese officials established the pattern of government that would survive until 1912