Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes

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Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes

  1. 1.  Beginning in the fall of 1775, colonial troops sought to take control of CANADA. Their efforts ultimately failed, and CANADA remained in British hands.  Throughout the summer of 1776, British and American troops fought for control of NEW YORK. After fierce fighting, the BRITISH forced WASHINGTON to retreat and seized control of NEW YORK.  As soon as the war started, so too did spying. Captured spies were often put to death. NATHAN HALE, who spied for GEORGE WASHINGTON during the New York campaign, was executed shortly after being captured by the British.
  2. 2.  On December 25, 1776, WASHINGTON defeated the British at TRENTON in a surprise attack.  A week later, WASHINGTON’S troops defeated the British at PRINCETON.  In October 1777, the CONTINENTAL ARMY defeated the British at the BATTLE OF SARATOGA in New York. It is considered a TURNING POINT of the war.
  3. 3.  The victory made it clear that the Americans could win the war. As a result, FRANCE joined the war on the side of the Americans.  Despite their string of victories, the colonists had run low on SUPPLIES AND AMMUNITION. Until FRENCH aid arrived, WASHINGTON and his army endured a harsh winter at VALLEY FORGE. As many as 2,500 soldiers died from disease, exposure to cold, and lack of food.
  4. 4.  While FRANCE aided the colonists during the war, so too did a number of Europeans from various countries.  BARON FRIEDRICH VON STEUBEN of Prussia helped to train soldiers at VALLEY FORGE; Casimir Pulaski of Poland trained and organized the first American cavalry; Bernardo Galvez of Spain provided supplies to the colonists.
  5. 5.  The REVOLUTIONARY WAR raged on the frontier, where many NATIVE AMERICANS fought alongside the British.  Despite the alliance between the NATIVE AMERICANS and the British, the colonists won decisive battles in the West and soon gained control of the region.  Meanwhile, JOHN PAUL JONES won a daring sea battle against the British navy in 1779 that helped to inspire the colonists.

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