While BRITAIN and FRANCE held most of
the land in NORTH AMERICA by the mid-
1700s, RUSSIA and SPAIN also claimed
RUSSIA held land in what is today
ALASKA. SPAIN claimed the land that is
now FLORIDA and parts of the
The clash over NORTH AMERICAN territory
between FRANCE and GREAT BRITAIN
began in the OHIO VALLEY, which both
nations claimed as theirs.
As the two nations moved closer to
war, NATIVE AMERICANS took sides. Most
NATIVE AMERICANS had developed a good
relationship with the FRENCH and thus joined
their side. However, the powerful IROQUOIS
sided with the BRITISH.
In 1753, the FRENCH clashed with the Virginia
MILITIA, led by GEORGE WASHINGTON, over
territory in the OHIO VALLEY. This conflict became
known as the FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
The fighting was part of a larger conflict known as the
SEVEN YEARS’ WAR, which was fought in EUROPE
and ASIA as well as NORTH AMERICA.
As the war began, the COLONISTS gathered to create
a unified plan of action. It was known as the ALBANY
PLAN OF UNION. In the end, however, the 13 colonial
assemblies REJECTED the plan. Each COLONY
wanted to make its own MILITARY DECISIONS.
The FRENCH won the early battles.
However, under the leadership of WILLIAM
PITT, the BRITISH and colonial armies
began to turn the tide.
In 1759, the BRITISH captured the city of
QUEBEC. This cut off FRENCH supplies
and weakened NEW FRANCE. In
1760, the BRITISH captured
MONTREAL, another key FRENCH city.
With this victory, the war ENDED.
In 1763, the BRITISH and FRENCH officially
ended the war by signing the TREATY OF
As a result of the treaty, BRITAIN took over
much of FRANCE’S NORTH AMERICAN
SPAIN, which had sided with the
FRENCH, had to give FLORIDA to the
BRITISH. To repay SPAIN for its
losses, FRANCE transferred the LOUISIANA
TERRITORY, including NEW ORLEANS, to