Chapter 13 Section 3


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Chapter 13 Section 3

  1. 1.  Upon taking office in 1828, JACKSON faced a crisis over the 1828 TARIFF, which increased the taxes on imported goods.  NORTHERN MANUFACTURERS and WESTERN FARMERS liked the tariff. High prices on foreign goods made it easier for them to sell their products to AMERICANS.  SOUTHERNERS hated the tariff. Because the SOUTH used many imported goods, the tariff raised the price of nearly everything the region bought. They nicknamed the tariff the TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS.  JOHN C. CALHOUN, Jackson’s VICE PRESIDENT and a SOUTHERNER, believed that the states could refuse to pay the tariff because they considered it unconstitutional. This philosophy was known as STATES’ RIGHTS---the belief that an individual state may restrict federal authority.  As the debate raged over the tariff and the rights of states, SOUTHERNERS began to promote the notion of NULLIFICATION, or the right of states to declare federal laws illegal.
  2. 2.  President JACKSON vigorously opposed the idea of nullification. The issue so divided JACKSON and CALHOUN that CALHOUN resigned as VICE PRESIDENT in 1832.  In 1832, Congress lowered the taxes on imports. The SOUTH, however, wanted them lowered even further.  SOUTH CAROLINA responded by passing the NULLIFICATION ACT. This law declared the tariff “NULL AND VOID.” The people of SOUTH CAROLINA also threatened to SECEDE, or leave the Union, if the federal government challenged the state law.  JACKSON vowed to use force to uphold the FEDERAL LAW. SOUTH CAROLINA backed down and repealed the NULLIFICATION ACT.
  3. 3.  By the 1820s, only about 120,000 NATIVE AMERICANS lived east of the MISSISSIPPI RIVER. Southern planters wanted their lands and pressured the Native Americans to move west.  In 1828, the CHEROKEE asked the Supreme Court to defend their rights to remain on land in Georgia. The Court sided with the CHEROKEE and declared that Georgia’s attempts to remove them were UNCONSTITUTIONAL.  JACKSON ignored the Supreme Court’s decision. He persuaded Congress to pass the INDIAN REMOVAL ACT OF 1830. The act provided funds for the federal government to remove NATIVE AMERICANS from the eastern United States.  Soon, the federal government began forcing NATIVE AMERICANS to move west. The CHEROKEE held out until 1838. As they headed west, many CHEROKEE succumbed to the brutal weather of the Great Plains. By the time they reached their destination, about 1/8 of the travelers had died. As a result, the forced trek became known as the TRAIL OF TEARS.