Chapter 12 Section 3


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Chapter 12 Section 3

  1. 1. Section 3 Notes
  2. 2.  JAMES MONROE won the presidential election of 1816. He assumed the presidency at a time when many Americans felt STRONG PRIDE and DEVOTION TO THEIR NATION. The country was prospering, and political rivalry had seemed to fade away. A Boston newspaper described the time as an “ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS.”  During this time, Speaker of the House HENRY CLAY proposed a NATIONALIST PROGRAM to improve the nation. It was known as the AMERICAN SYSTEM and aimed to IMPROVE EACH REGION’S ECONOMY AND STRENGHTHEN THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT. It included three main aspects: INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS such as ROADS, BRIDGES, and CANALS; CREATION OF A NEW NATONAL BANK to create a more orderly money supply and help American businesses to grow; and HIGHER TAXES on imported items to help American merchants sell more goods.
  3. 3.  The Supreme Court helped to increase the power of the national government with three notable decisions during the early 1800s.  In the case of FLETCHER V. PECK the Court ruled that ACTS OF STATE GOVERNMENT COULD BE DECLARED VOID if they violated provisions of the Constitution.  In MCCULLOUGH V. MARYLAND, the Court declared that the federal government could choose ANY METHOD that was “NECESSARY AND PROPER” to exercise the power the Constitution had given it.  In GIBBONS V. OGDEN, the Court decided that ONLY CONGRESS HAD THE POWER TO MAKE LAWS GOVERNING INTERSTATE COMMERCE, or trade between states.
  4. 4.  Despite growing feelings of nationalism, SECTIONALISM also grew during the early 1800s. SECTIONALISM is a rivalry based on the SPECIAL INTERESTS OF DIFFERENT AREAS.  When Congress passed HIGHER TARIFFS in 1818 and 1824, some parts of the country protested. SOUTHERNERS now had to buy their goods from NORTHERN merchants, who charged more than the BRITISH did. Southerners argued that the tariffs benefited Northerners at their expense.  SECTIONAL FIGHTING also erupted in 1819, when the MISSOURI TERRITORY asked to become a state. NORTHERNERS wanted Missouri admitted as a FREE STATE, and SOUTHERNERS insisted that it become a SLAVE STATE.  Legislators devised the MISSOURI COMPROMISE to settle the dispute. Under the compromise, MISSOURI was admitted as a SLAVE STATE and MAINE was admitted as a FREE STATE. This kept an even BALANCE OF POWER in the Senate---12 SLAVE STATES and 12 FREE STATES.  The MISSOURI COMPROMISE also settled the question of slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Territory---it would be PROHIBITED north of the 36th parallel.
  5. 5.  SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES played a role in the presidential election of 1824. All four candidates were Republicans, yet all came from different sections of the country.  No candidate won a majority. As a result, the HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES decided the election. HENRY CLAY, the Speaker of the House, helped secure enough votes to make JOHN QUINCY ADAMS the winner.  Upon becoming President, Adams made Clay his secretary of state. Critics accused the two men of a “CORRUPT BARGAIN” in which Adams promised Clay the position in return for his help in the election. NO PROOF OF AN ARRANGEMENT EVER EMERGED.  The ELECTON OF 1824 ENDED the ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS. The controversy over the election SPLIT THE REPUBLICAN PARTY into DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS and NATIONAL REPUBLICANS.  DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS, who soon became known as DEMOCRATS, FAVORED STATES’ RIGHTS. Their support came mostly from the SOUTH and WEST. NATIONAL REPUBLICANS favored a STRONG FEDERAL GOVERNMENT; they found support in the NORTHEAST.