Despite BRITAIN’S pledge as part of the TREATY OF
PARIS to leave North America, the British still
occupied forts in the OHIO VALLEY and GREAT LAKES
region in the 1790s.
The BRITISH befriended and supported the region’s
NATIVE AMERICANS who fought with colonial settlers.
In 1794, colonial troops defeated a group of NATIVE
AMERICANS at the BATTLE OF FALLEN TIMBERS in
present-day OHIO. As a result, NATIVE AMERICAN
resistance in the Ohio Valley all but disappeared.
SPAIN, which held the LOUISIANA TERRITORY, also
made trouble for Western settlers who used the
MISSISSIPPI RIVER for trade. Meanwhile, PIRATES from
North Africa harassed American trade ships in the
In 1789, a revolution broke out in FRANCE. In
1793, GREAT BRITAIN and other nations
declared war on FRANCE’S revolutionary
government. The UNITED STATES took a
position of neutrality in the matter.
Both GREAT BRITAIN and FRANCE ignored
AMERICA’S neutrality and seized hundreds of
AMERICAN ships. The BRITISH also impressed,
or kidnapped, AMERICAN sailors to serve in
the BRITISH navy.
In 1794, the UNITED STATES and GREAT BRITAIN
signed the JAY TREATY---named after Chief Justice
John Jay, who led the treaty negotiations.
Under the treaty, BRITAIN agreed to withdraw from its
forts in the NORTHWEST TERRITORY and allow
American ships to trade in the BRITISH WEST INDIES.
Many Americans voiced OPPOSITION to the treaty.
They were angry that the BRITISH had not promised
to stop seizing American ships or kidnapping
In 1795, the UNITED STATES and SPAIN signed
PICKNEY’S TREATY, named after American envoy
Thomas Pickney. Under the treaty, SPAIN allowed
American ships to use the lower Mississippi and to
trade through the port of NEW ORLEANS.
WASHINGTON decided to step down as
President after TWO terms.
In his farewell address, WASHINGTON told the
nation to avoid getting too involved in
FOREIGN AFFAIRS. He also warned against the
development of DIVISIVE POLITICAL PARTIES
and rivalries between the NORTHERN AND
SOUTHERN interests in the country.