Chapter 10 Section 1


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Chapter 10 Section 1

  1. 1. Section 1 Notes
  2. 2.  Members of the ELECTORAL COLLEGE—a group of presidential electors chosen by the states--- chose GEORGE WASHINGTON as the nation’s first President. He took the oath of office in APRIL 1789.  The new nation faced many challenges. Its army was SMALL and it had no NAVY. NATIVE AMERICANS were continually attacking frontier settlements. Meanwhile, PIRATES constantly threatened American trade.  WASHINGTON was a cautious President. He proved to be a capable leader who made sound decisions. Much of what WASHINGTON did during his first term in office established a MODEL that later Presidents followed.
  3. 3.  The U.S. CONGRESS met for the first time in NEW YORK CITY in March 1789. During its first session, CONGRESS passed the BILL OF RIGHTS---the first 10 amendments to the CONSTITUTION.  Early in his tenure, President WASHINGTON chose people to head the various executive departments. These directors became known as the President’s CABINET.  CONGRESS organized the FEDERAL COURT SYSTEM with the passage of the JUDICIARY ACT of 1789. This act stated that the SUPREME COURT should be made up of one CHIEF JUSTICE and five ASSOCIATE judges. Today, the SUPREME COURT has NINE members---one CHIEF JUSTICE and eight ASSOCIATE judges.
  4. 4.  The most serious financial challenge the new United States faced was a large debt from the REVOLUTIONARY WAR. The total amount a government owes on money it has borrowed is called the NATIONAL DEBT.  ALEXANDER HAMILTON was the nation’s first SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY. He called for the federal government to pay the debts owed by the nation and the states.  Many SOUTHERNERS opposed HAMILTON’S plan. They did not want to see the power of STATE governments weakened by being dependent on the FEDERAL government.  A compromise was reached when SOUTHERN leaders agreed to HAMILTON’S plan in return for the nation’s capital being located in the SOUTH---on the POTOMAC RIVER between MARYLAND and VIRGINIA.
  5. 5.  HAMILTON also called for the creation of a national bank. He proposed four duties for the bank: HANDLE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT’S MONEY; HELP COLLECT TAX MONEY; ISSUE PAPER MONEY; GIVE OUT LOANS TO HELP THE GROWTH OF BUSINESSES.  Many people opposed the idea of a NATIONAL BANK. SOUTHERNERS argued that the bank would help wealthy NORTHERN merchants at the expense of SOUTHERN farmers.  LEGISLATORS however, favored HAMILTON’S plan. In 1791, Congress passed a bill creating the BANK OF THE UNITED STATES.  HAMILTON also convinced Congress to place a tax on numerous goods in order to raise money for the government.  FARMERS on the WESTERN frontier opposed a new tax on WHISKEY, which they used almost like cash when trading among each other. In 1794, farmers and government agents clashed in what became known as the WHISKEY REBELLION. President WASHINGTON sent in the militia and the revolt was quickly put down.