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# Water

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### Water

1. 1. 1º THE MOLECULE 2º PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 3º STATES OF WATER 4º THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT 5º SEPARATION TECHNIQUES WATER
2. 2. 1. MOLECULE OF WATER A molecule of water has one atom of Oxygen and two atoms of Hydrogen. O H H
3. 3. H 2 O The chemical formula of water is 1. MOLECULE OF WATER
4. 4. One molecule of water has got a very small mass of 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 03 g. That’s a very small number. Isn't it? 1. MOLECULE OF WATER 3 10 -23 g
5. 5. When we drink a glass of water (240g), we are drinking 8,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 molecules of water. That's a very big number. Isn't it? 1. MOLECULE OF WATER
6. 6. 2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES The density of liquid water is 1 gram per cubic centimetre. d = 1 g cm 3 1 g 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm
7. 7. 2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES The density of liquid water is higher than the density of ice (frozen water). The ice floats above the water
8. 8. 2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES The fusion point of water is 0 ºC (zero degrees Celsius). Ice and liquid water can be together at 0 ºC.
9. 9. 2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES The boiling point of water is 100 ºC (one hundred degrees Celsius). Liquid water and water vapor can be together at 100 ºC.
10. 10. 3. STATES OF WATER Solid <ul><li>Molecules are strongly united </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules are perfectly ordered </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules can’t move </li></ul><ul><li>All molecules form a crystal structure </li></ul>Why do you think a solid has got a fixed form? Why do you think it’s very difficult to compress a solid?
11. 11. 3. STATES OF WATER Liquid <ul><li>Molecules are strongly united </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules are disordered </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules form small groups </li></ul><ul><li>These groups can move among themselves </li></ul>Why do you think a liquid hasn’t got a definite form? Why do you think it’s very difficult to compress a liquid?
12. 12. 3. STATES OF WATER Gaseous <ul><li>Molecules aren’t united </li></ul><ul><li>There isn’t any force between them </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules are totally disordered </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules can move freely in all directions </li></ul>Why do you think a gas hasn’t got a definite form? Why do you think it’s very easy to compress a gas?
13. 13. 3. STATES OF WATER Vaporisation Fusion Solidification Sublimation Sublimation Condensation SOLID LIQUID GASEOSOUS 0 ºC 100 ºC TEMPERATURE Changes of states
14. 14. 4. THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT Water is the universal solvent. In nature we can find water in the seas, rivers, subterranean… and water always contains many other substances. Living beings, drinks, foods, and chemical products are formed by water.
15. 15. 4. THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT A solution is a homogeneous mixture. The most abundant part is called the solvent, and the less abundant part is called the solute. Salt Water Salted water + = Solute + Solvent = Solution
16. 16. 4. THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT The molecules of water capture the ions of the salt. Later, all the molecules of salt are mixed among the molecules of water. The crystal structure of salt is destroyed. Salt before being mixed + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + How a salt is dissolved in water Salt after being mixed
17. 17. 5. SEPARATION TECHNIQUES Filtration Beaker Funnel Filter <ul><li>We use this technique to separate dissolved particles in water </li></ul><ul><li>We put a paper filter in a funnel </li></ul><ul><li>If particles have a size bigger than the porous of the paper filter, they won’t be able to pass through them </li></ul><ul><li>Clean water can pass and fall down into a beaker </li></ul>
18. 18. 5. SEPARATION TECHNIQUES Decantation Oil Water Separating funnel tap stopper <ul><li>We use this technique to separate two immiscible liquids. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil, less dense, is above water </li></ul><ul><li>Opening the tap, water is falling down, drip-drop </li></ul><ul><li>When oil is going to escape we turn off the tap </li></ul>
19. 19. 5. SEPARATION TECHNIQUES Crystallization Crystallizer Aqueous solution Salt Evaporation <ul><li>The solution is heated by the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Water is evaporated </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, we can see crystallized salt in the crystallizer </li></ul>
20. 20. Distillation 5. SEPARATION TECHNIQUES Clamp stand Bunsen burner Ethyl alcohol and water Steam Clamp Thermometer Distillation flask Condenser Cooling water Condensed alcohol Cold water Receiving flask Distilled alcohol <ul><li>We use this technique to separate mixed liquids </li></ul><ul><li>We heat the mixture in a distillation flask </li></ul><ul><li>At 78 ºC ethyl alcohol is boiling and it escapes from the flask </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol is condensed into the refrigerator tube </li></ul><ul><li>Finally we have distilled alcohol in an Erlenmeyer flask </li></ul>
• #### RuturajDhonde

Jan. 26, 2020
• #### DikshaMishra25

Nov. 20, 2017
• #### DrGasperBaltazar

Feb. 26, 2016

Nov. 14, 2011

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