2009 10 03 Learning Unit Sdi


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Learning unit for 2009-10-03 class of GES 679, as taught at University of Maryland - Baltimore County.

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  • FGDC standards process is structured similarly to processes used by ISO and ANSI Standards development group interfaces with SWG at steps 2, 6, and 10
  • Search ISO 10646 and standards reference models
  • The enterprise viewpoint - describes the relationship of the information system to its environment in the organization, the role of the information system in the organization, and the policies for using the information system: might correspond to FEA Business Reference Model The engineering viewpoint implementations within distributed, networked computing systems that support the specifications defined from the perspective of the information and computational viewpoints. The technology viewpoint provision of an underlying infrastructure within which services operate. A technology specification defines how a system is structured in terms of hardware and software components.
  • The information viewpoint : Model of the information in a GIS and defines the processing that is performed by such a system. Provides a consistent common view on information that can be referenced in a GIS. The computational viewpoint interaction between services that are part of a larger system. A specification of a service is a model of the service as seen by a client or by a set of other services with which this service interacts.
  • Conceptual modeling . Necessary for both the information and computational viewpoints. Rigorously describe geographic information – one way to view this to capture map data in text. Also used to define services for transformation and exchange of geographic information. We will discuss conceptual modeling in in Class 3. Domain reference model . encompasses both the information and computational viewpoints, focusing most closely on those standards in the ISO 19100 series of standards that standardize  the structure of geographic information in data models and definition of operations, and  the administration of geographic information. This includes metadata. Cataloguing refers to feature cataloguing, not data cataloguing The General feature model defines a metamodel for features and their properties. Architectural reference model . Describes the general types of services that will be provided by computer systems to manipulate geographic information and enumerates the service interfaces across which those services must interoperate. This model also provides a method of identifying specific requirements for standardization of geographic information that is processed by these services. The Architectural reference model focuses primarily on the computational viewpoint (see Annex A). To be complete, the reference model must provide an understanding of how it relates to other ISO reference model standards that describe key aspects of information technology upon which the ISO 19100 series is based. Clause 9 describes the relationship between the ISO 19100 series and the Open Systems Environment Reference Model.
  •  Model/Information Management Services management of the development, manipulation, and storage of metadata, conceptual schemas, and datasets.  Geographic Information Model/Information Management Services . Specific services within this class are identified in ISO 19119. These services are based on the content of those standards in the ISO 19100 series that standardize the structure of geographic information and the procedures for its administration. Examples of such services are a query and update service for access and manipulation of geographic information and a catalogue service for management of feature catalogues.  Human Interaction Services management of user interfaces, graphics, multimedia, and presentation of compound documents. Geographic Information Human Interaction Services forcus on managing the interface between humans and Geographic Information Systems, for example, portrayal  Workflow/Task Services support specific tasks or work-related activities that may be conducted by different persons Geographic Information Workflow/Task Management Services focuses on workflow for tasks associated with geographic information – involving processing of orders for buying and selling of geographic information and services: what about  Processing Services perform large-scale computations involving substantial amounts of data. Geographic Information Processing Services . Services for coordinate transformation, metric translation, and format conversion.  Communication Services are services for encoding and transfer of data across communications networks. Geographic Information Communication Services . Transfer of geographic information (data sharing, ESRI shapefiles, GML/XML)  System Management Services management of system components, applications, and networks. These services also include management of user accounts and user access privileges. Geographic Information System Management focus on user management and performance management. These services are described in more detail in ISO 19119.
  • 2009 10 03 Learning Unit Sdi

    1. 1. GES 679 SDIs and Standards
    2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Review: What did you discover about accessing standards documents? </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary consensus standards </li></ul><ul><li>Standards development process </li></ul><ul><li>Standards reference models </li></ul>
    3. 3. Voluntary Consensus Standards
    4. 4. Voluntary Consensus Standards <ul><li>Policy statements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal government: OMB Circular A-119/NTTAA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. National Standards Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Trade Organization (WTO) Technical Barriers to Trade </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. OMB Circular A-119 <ul><li>Directs Federal agencies to participate in voluntary consensus standards bodies and to use voluntary consensus standards whenever possible . </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Executive Branch guidance to Federal agencies on the implementation of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act ( NTTAA ) of 1996 (P.L. 104-133). </li></ul>
    6. 6. Why develop FGDC standards? <ul><li>If OMB Circular A-119 directs the Federal government to use voluntary consensus standards, then why does the FGDC develop standards? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Functional relationships IETF / W3C IT Infrastructure FGDC Thematic data standards OGC Interface and Encoding De Facto De Jure Domain Infrastructure ISO/TC 211 Conceptual modeling Data spec methodologies
    8. 8. U.S. National Standards Strategy <ul><li>􀁑 Transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Essential information regarding standardization activities is accessible to all interested parties. </li></ul><ul><li>􀁑 Openness </li></ul><ul><li>Participation is open to all affected interests. </li></ul><ul><li>􀁑 Impartiality </li></ul><ul><li>No one interest dominates the process or is favored over another. </li></ul><ul><li>􀁑 Effectiveness and Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Standards are relevant and effectively respond to regulatory and market needs, as well as scientific and technological developments. </li></ul><ul><li>􀁑 Consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions are reached through consensus among those affected. </li></ul><ul><li>􀁑 Performance Based </li></ul><ul><li>Standards are performance based (specifying essential characteristics rather than detailed designs) where possible. </li></ul>
    9. 9. U.S. National Standards Strategy <ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Coherence </li></ul><ul><li>The process encourages coherence to avoid overlapping and conflicting standards. </li></ul><ul><li>􀁑 Due Process </li></ul><ul><li>Standards development accords with due process so that all views are considered and appeals are possible. </li></ul><ul><li>􀁑 Technical Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance is offered to developing countries in the formulation and application of standards. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, U.S. interests strongly agree that the process should be: </li></ul><ul><li>􀁑 Flexible , allowing the use of different methodologies to meet the needs </li></ul><ul><li>of different technology and product sectors; </li></ul><ul><li>􀁑 Timely , so that purely administrative matters do not result in a failure to </li></ul><ul><li>meet market expectations; and </li></ul><ul><li>􀁑 Balanced among all affected interests. </li></ul>
    10. 10. OMB Circular A-119 <ul><li>Defines a voluntary consensus standards body by the following attributes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An appeals process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus , which is defined as general agreement, but not necessarily unanimity , and includes a process for attempting to resolve objections by interested parties, as long as all comments have been fairly considered, each objector is advised of the disposition of his or her objection(s) and the reasons why, and the consensus body members are given an opportunity to change their votes after reviewing the comments. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. WTO Technical Barriers to Trade <ul><li>Limits WTO member‘s regulatory flexibility by the requirement that technical regulations “are not prepared, adopted or applied with a view to, or with the effect of, creating unnecessary obstacles to trade.” </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages members to use international standards for national regulations, unless “their use would be ineffective or inappropriate” to fulfill a given policy objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages members to participate in the work of international bodies for the preparation of standards and guides or recommendations for conformity assessment procedures. </li></ul>
    12. 12. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) <ul><li>Chapter Nine: Standards-Related Measures, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibits standards-related measures that create an unnecessary obstacle to trade between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directs the U.S., Canada, and Mexico to use international standards, except where these standards are ineffective or inappropriate for fulfilling legitimate objectives, due to particular climatic, geographical, technological or infrastructural factors, and scientific justification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permits the U.S., Canada, and Mexico to adopt, maintain, or apply measures that result in a higher level of protection than with an international standard. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Standards development
    14. 14. Standards development processes <ul><li>Rigorous standards processes are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-documented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iterative </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. FGDC Standards Process From FGDC Standards process, http:// www.fgdc.gov /standards/process FGDC Steering Committee 12 – Endorsement FINAL CG 11 - Approve Standard for Endorsement SWG 10 - Evaluate Responsiveness to Public Comments Standards Development Group 9 - Respond to Public Comments FGDC Secretariat 8 - Coordinate Public Review FGDC Coordination Group (CG) 7 - Approve Standard for Public Review SWG 6 - Review and Evaluate Committee Draft REVIEW SC/WG 5 - Review Working Draft Standards Development Group 4 - Produce Working Draft DRAFT FGDC Subcommittee or Working Group (SC/WG) 3 - Set Up Project PROJECT SWG 2 - Review Proposal FGDC Standards Working Group (SWG) 1- Develop Proposal PROPOSAL CUSTODIAN STEP STAGE
    16. 16. FGDC Standards Process From FGDC Standards Reference Model, http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/refmod97.pdf Recommendation Final draft standard Recommendation final draft standard Comment document Draft standard Public comments Draft standard Active proposal Step 4 – Produce working draft Step 1 – Develop proposal Step 2 – Review proposal Proposal Step 3 – Set-up project Project Step 5 – Review working draft Working draft Step 6 – Review and evaluate committee draft Committee draft Step 7 – Review and evaluate committee draft Step 8 – Coordinate public review Committee draft Step 9 – Respond to public comments Step 10 – Evaluate responsiveness to public comments Step 11 – Approve standard for endorsement Step 12 – Endorsement Proposal Draft Standard
    17. 17. Standards development processes <ul><li>No matter what the steps or stages or the deliverables are called, the milestones common among standards processes are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approved project proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Published standard </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Review <ul><li>Name three characteristics of standards processes </li></ul><ul><li>What are common milestones among standards processes? </li></ul><ul><li>What principles underlie development of voluntary consensus standards? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the FGDC develop standards when the Federal government should use voluntary consensus standards whenever possible? </li></ul><ul><li>What is meant by consensus? </li></ul>
    19. 19. Standards reference models
    20. 20. Standards reference models <ul><li>ISO/IEC 10746, Reference Model - Open Distributed Processing </li></ul><ul><li>FEA Geospatial Profile </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 19101, Geographic information –Reference Model </li></ul><ul><li>Geospatial Interoperability Reference Model (GIRM) </li></ul>
    21. 21. ISO/IEC 10746, RM-ODP By Marcel Douwe Dekker, from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RM-ODP_viewpoints.jpg
    22. 22. FEA Geospatial Profile
    23. 23. Enterprise Architecture <ul><li>Framework in which one describes the current and future work activities and justifies the investments (personnel, data, applications) of an “enterprise” </li></ul><ul><li>A precursor to e-Government and business process re-engineering </li></ul>
    24. 24. Goals of EA <ul><li>to provide a structured approach to business process assessment and re-engineering </li></ul><ul><li>to support classification of business processes, data concepts, standards, services (components and interfaces) </li></ul><ul><li>to provide a reference framework to store models that explain the services and data behind them </li></ul><ul><li>to improve efficiencies within an organization </li></ul><ul><li>to identify potential for services and data re-use for multiple purposes </li></ul>
    25. 25. Federal Enterprise Architecture
    26. 26. FEA Reference Models <ul><li>Performance Reference Model (PRM) defines measures of business performance </li></ul><ul><li>Business Reference Model (BRM) – define mission-critical lines of business, business processes, and functions </li></ul><ul><li>Service Reference Model (SRM) defines the types and instances of services required to support processes </li></ul>
    27. 27. FEA Reference Models <ul><li>Data Reference Model (DRM) – defines the data/information concepts, structures, definitions, and values or enumerations required by the BRM in the context of the TRM </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Reference Model (TRM) –identifies and describes the technology (components, interfaces) used to achieve the BRM </li></ul>
    28. 28. FEA Reference Models Business Ref Model What do you do? What are the Requirements? How often? Who are the users? Data Ref Model What information does the process need? How is it structured? What is its quality? Where is it located? Service Component Ref Model How can access to the data+processes be exposed for re-use across the enterprise? Performance Ref Model How can success be measured? What are the outcomes and products? What are the costs? Technology Ref Model What standards can be leveraged to maximize re-use and minimize development/acquisition costs?
    29. 29. FEA Geospatial Profile <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>promote consideration of location as a component of agency business activities and processes </li></ul><ul><li>support description and sharing of geospatial resources across organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Build geospatial considerations into all aspects of agency EA development. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce existing guidelines, standards, and policies established by OMB, FGDC, and ISO for development, management, and use of geospatial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Measure performance in the use and management of geospatial resources. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Data Reference Model <ul><ul><li>Data context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data sharing </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Data context <ul><li>Based on business process and requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Location, location, location! </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic categories for thematic content classification (from ISO 19115:2003, Geographic information – Metadata) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feature Cataloguing to declare feature types, properties, and enumerations (from ISO 19110: Geographic information - Methodology for feature cataloguing) </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Data description <ul><li>Logical data models aka applications schemas </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation according to recognized metadata standards (FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata, ISO 19115, North American Profile) </li></ul><ul><li>Data product specifications </li></ul>
    33. 33. Data sharing <ul><li>Use of standard formats and services for exchange (for example, OGC encoding standards) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of geospatial data formats for exchange </li></ul>
    34. 34. Technical Reference Model <ul><li>Geospatial standards and specifications are identified to improve interoperability in enterprise solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO, W3C, OGC, OASIS, FGDC and other standards are referenced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate to Web Services, data formats, protocols, metadata, data schemas and content </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. ISO 19101:2002 Geographic information – Reference Model
    36. 36. ISO 19101:2002 <ul><li>Adopted in the U.S. as INCITS/ISO 19101-2002 (R2007), Geographic information -- Reference model </li></ul><ul><li>New work item proposal to revise ISO 19101:2002 approved in June 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>ISO published ISO/TS 19101-2:2008, Geographic information -- Reference model -- Part 2: Imagery, but it has yet to be published as an American National Standard </li></ul>
    37. 37. ISO 19101
    38. 38. ISO 19101
    39. 39. Domain reference model
    40. 40. Architectural Reference Model
    41. 41. Architectural Reference Model
    42. 42. ISO 19101:2002 <ul><li>Why update ISO 19101:2002? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To revisit the definition of interoperability in the geographic information context, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To “précise” the role of semantics, including the role of the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To update relationships between standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To introduce support of Semantic Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To address newly submitted comments/clarifications </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Geospatial Interoperability Reference Model (GIRM)
    44. 44. GIRM <ul><li>Effort of FGDC Geospatial Applications & Interoperability (GAI) Working Group (now inactive) </li></ul><ul><li>Last version: Version 1.1, December 2003  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Instantiated” ISO 10746 computational and informational viewpoints for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data and data access: features, coverages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata and catalog access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps and visualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geospatial reference systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geoprocessing services: general, coordinate transformation, gazetteer, other </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Viewpoints and levels of abstraction Content Behavior Abstract models (&quot;what&quot;) Encoding Interface Implementation specifications (&quot;how&quot;) Information Transfer Service Invocation Information Viewpoint Computation Viewpoint
    46. 46. Metadata and catalog access Information Viewpoint Computation Viewpoint Content: FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata ISO 19115:2003, Metadata Behavior: OGC Topic 13, [Data] Catalog Services Abstract models Encoding: ISO 19139, XML implementation of ISO 19115 Interface: OGC Catalog Interface ISO 23950 (a.k.a. ANSI Z39.50) Implementation specifications Information Transfer Service Invocation
    47. 47. Review <ul><li>Which two viewpoints from ISO/IEC 10746 are most relevant to geospatial standards development? </li></ul><ul><li>Name the reference models within the Federal Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>What are the components of the FEA Data Reference Model? Relate each component to geographic information </li></ul><ul><li>Name the classes of services. What does each class do? Relate each class to geospatial requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Draw the matrix for viewpoints and levels of abstraction from the GIRM </li></ul>
    48. 48. References <ul><li>Voluntary consensus standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OMB Circular A-119, http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars/a119/a119.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. National Standards Strategy, http://publicaa.ansi.org/sites/apdl/Documents/Standards%20Activities/NSSC/USSS-2005%20-%20FINAL.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WTO | Technical barriers to trade, http:// www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tbt_e/tbt_info_e.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAFTA Chapter Nine: Standards-Related Measures, http://www.mac.doc.gov/nafta/chapter9.html </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. References <ul><li>Standards development processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FGDC, http:// www.fgdc.gov /standards/process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OGC – Anna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INCITS - Guy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO – refer to Federico’s post on the discussion forum for comprehensive treatment </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. References <ul><li>Standards reference models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO/IEC 10746, Reference Model - Open Distributed Processing - Andrew </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FEA Geospatial Profile, http://www.fgdc.gov/library/FEA_Geospatial_Profile_v_2.0_draft_5.7_20090306/download </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 19101, Geographic information – Reference Model: refer to Karen’s post on the discussion forum for comprehensive treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geospatial Interoperability Reference Model (GIRM) , http://laits.gmu.edu/~achen/girm.html </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. 2009-10-17 Class 3 <ul><li>Metadata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USMARC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dublin Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FGDC Data Content Standard for Geospatial Metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 19115:2003, Geographic information – Metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Z39.50 search protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications schema </li></ul><ul><li>Data product specifications </li></ul>
    52. 52. (Ms.) Julie Binder Maitra Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Chair, FGDC Standards Working Group International Representative, INCITS Technical Committee L1, Geographic Information Systems Email: [email_address] Phone: (703) 648 4627 GMT -5 h Web: FGDC Standards: www.fgdc.gov /standards/ INCITS L1: l1.incits.org LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/juliebindermaitra &quot;We live in two worlds: the world that we can measure with line and rule, and the world that we feel with our hearts and imagination.&quot; - Leigh Hunt Thank you!