TotalitarianRegimes:TowardsGodthroughEmpire     (Franco’sSpain)<br />Juan Manuel Acero<br />3rd. FormEnglish<br />CeRP del...
After a steady, three-centurylong decline, Spain hit rock bottom in the 19th Century…<br />Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), ...
… a time full of trouble, bothdomestic and foreign… <br />Internally:<br />Externally:<br />Loss of American Colonies (181...
… resulting in a country divided in twomajorfactions…<br />… thosewhowantedto open SpainouttotheWorld…<br />… and thosewho...
Francisco Franco wasonlysixyearsoldwhen …<br /><ul><li>… Spainwassoundlydefeatedbythe USA both at theCaribbean and thePaci...
Thedawn of the 20th Centurywill show thatSpain’sdownfallisnotto stop soon…<br />1921’s Disaster of Annual:<br />over 10000...
… and radical ways are proposedtoavoiddecay.<br />1923: King Alfonso XIII appoints Miguel Primo de Rivera as dictator.<br ...
Meanwhile….<br />Francisco Franco pursues a succesfulmilitarycarreer, and seemstostayawayfrompoliticalturmoil.<br />
In fiveyears, from 1931 to 1936, Spainslidesdowntowards Civil War<br />1931: Proclamation of theSecondRepublic<br />1931 -...
OnJuly 18th 1936, tensionsbetween radical left and extreme right lead up torebellionfromConservativeArmyofficers.<br />
Franco seemstobedisconnectedfromtheheads of therising, but…<br />... by June 1937 thetwo top insurrectionistofficershavedi...
The “Movement” leads to a warthatwilllastforthreehard, bloodyyears.<br />November 1936<br />February 1939<br />November 19...
Bothsideshaveexternalhelp<br />
Bothsideshaveexternalhelp<br />
April 1st 1939: Warisover, says Franco<br />AftertheWar, Franco leadershipwillbeuncontestedforthefollowing 40 years... <br />
Themaintraits of Francoism<br /><ul><li>Rejection of Parliamentarism, Division of Powers, Civil Liberties.
 Anti-Communism, Anti-Semitism
CatholicNationalism, Centralism, Traditionalism, Militarism
 Single-Partysystem, Vertical Syndicalism
Repression: 50000 deadduringwar, 200000 in 1939-1943
Press and peopleunderstrict control.
Personalitycult:  Franco “Leader of Spainbythe Grace of God”</li></li></ul><li>Hitler madehismoveto try togetFranco’sSpain...
… Franco didnotenterthewar, buthissupport of the Axis …	<br />… increasedSpain’sisolationfromthe Western World.<br />In 19...
The post-warscenariodidnothavemuchtooffertoFranco’sSpain: <br /><ul><li>1940’s: post-CivilWarhardships, addedtotheinternat...
1953: Pacts of Madrid paveSpain’sway back totheinternationalcommunity. Economicrestrictionsslowlygive in.</li></li></ul><l...
But, in spite of the “miracle”, social and politicalunrest set in…<br />
TheagedGeneralisimoseeksforcontinuity of hispoliticalregime...<br />1969<br />1973<br />
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Totalitarian regimes franco

  1. 1. TotalitarianRegimes:TowardsGodthroughEmpire (Franco’sSpain)<br />Juan Manuel Acero<br />3rd. FormEnglish<br />CeRP del Sur – October 2011<br />
  2. 2. After a steady, three-centurylong decline, Spain hit rock bottom in the 19th Century…<br />Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), <br />TheFamily of Charles IV<br />
  3. 3. … a time full of trouble, bothdomestic and foreign… <br />Internally:<br />Externally:<br />Loss of American Colonies (1810-1820)<br />Loss of Predominance in European and WorldAffairs<br />Spanish-American War of 1898<br />Napoleon’sInvasion (1808)<br />ThreeDinastic Civil Wars<br /> (CarlistWars) <br />Change of Regime (FirstRepublic , 1873-1874) and subsequentrestoration<br />
  4. 4. … resulting in a country divided in twomajorfactions…<br />… thosewhowantedto open SpainouttotheWorld…<br />… and thosewhowantedtokeepitclosedintoitself.<br />
  5. 5. Francisco Franco wasonlysixyearsoldwhen …<br /><ul><li>… Spainwassoundlydefeatedbythe USA both at theCaribbean and thePacific.</li></ul>1898: a Winter of Discontent<br />
  6. 6. Thedawn of the 20th Centurywill show thatSpain’sdownfallisnotto stop soon…<br />1921’s Disaster of Annual:<br />over 10000 Spanishsoldierskilled in Morocco.<br />1929’s World Crisis hits Spainevenharder.<br />1912: current Head of Government José Canalejas killedbyanallegedanarchist.<br />
  7. 7. … and radical ways are proposedtoavoiddecay.<br />1923: King Alfonso XIII appoints Miguel Primo de Rivera as dictator.<br /><ul><li>1933: creationof Falange Española,thefirstopenlyFascistparty inSpain.</li></li></ul><li>Theplatform of Falange Española<br />Spainmustremainone. Separatismis“a crimewewillnotforgive”. The 1931 Constitution, as it condones separatism, mustdisappear.<br />SpainisentitledtoanEmpire of itsown, withpreponderanceoverLatinAmerica and a privileged place in Europeanaffairs.<br />TheStatewillbe a “totalitarianinstrument at theservice of nationalintegrity”. Politicalparties, Parliament and elections are tobeabolished.<br />A “rigorous discipline” willfalluponthosewho try to “poison, createdivisionsamongSpaniardsormovethemawayagainsttheDestiny of theirMotherland”<br />José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of Falange Española<br />
  8. 8. Meanwhile….<br />Francisco Franco pursues a succesfulmilitarycarreer, and seemstostayawayfrompoliticalturmoil.<br />
  9. 9. In fiveyears, from 1931 to 1936, Spainslidesdowntowards Civil War<br />1931: Proclamation of theSecondRepublic<br />1931 - 1933: ruledby a coalition of Center-LefttoLeftparties, <br />the new Republicpasses a Constitution, new laws<br /> of PublicEducation, AgrarianReformation, Vote for<br />women.<br /> 1932: General Sanjurjo and otherhigh-rankofficersattempt a<br />coupd’étatknown as “Sanjurjada”.<br />1933 -1936: CEDA (SpanishConfederation of Autonomous<br />Rights): the Black / SterileBiennial.<br /> 1934: Anarchist and CommunistUnionsunleashthefailed “Red <br />October” revolution in Asturias (North-Western Spain). <br />Catalonia declares itself “sovereignstatewithintheRepublic”<br />
  10. 10. OnJuly 18th 1936, tensionsbetween radical left and extreme right lead up torebellionfromConservativeArmyofficers.<br />
  11. 11. Franco seemstobedisconnectedfromtheheads of therising, but…<br />... by June 1937 thetwo top insurrectionistofficershavedied, both at planecrashes. <br />
  12. 12. The “Movement” leads to a warthatwilllastforthreehard, bloodyyears.<br />November 1936<br />February 1939<br />November 1938<br />October 1937<br />July 1936<br />
  13. 13. Bothsideshaveexternalhelp<br />
  14. 14. Bothsideshaveexternalhelp<br />
  15. 15. April 1st 1939: Warisover, says Franco<br />AftertheWar, Franco leadershipwillbeuncontestedforthefollowing 40 years... <br />
  16. 16. Themaintraits of Francoism<br /><ul><li>Rejection of Parliamentarism, Division of Powers, Civil Liberties.
  17. 17. Anti-Communism, Anti-Semitism
  18. 18. CatholicNationalism, Centralism, Traditionalism, Militarism
  19. 19. Single-Partysystem, Vertical Syndicalism
  20. 20. Repression: 50000 deadduringwar, 200000 in 1939-1943
  21. 21. Press and peopleunderstrict control.
  22. 22. Personalitycult: Franco “Leader of Spainbythe Grace of God”</li></li></ul><li>Hitler madehismoveto try togetFranco’sSpainintothewar.<br />WorldWar II broke up fivemonthsaftertheSpanish Civil Warhadended.<br />
  23. 23. … Franco didnotenterthewar, buthissupport of the Axis … <br />… increasedSpain’sisolationfromthe Western World.<br />In 1941, Spainsentthe “Blue Squadron” and “Blue Division”, volunteerpilots and soldierswhofoughtagainst Stalin in theRussian Front. <br />
  24. 24. The post-warscenariodidnothavemuchtooffertoFranco’sSpain: <br /><ul><li>1940’s: post-CivilWarhardships, addedtotheinternationalsituation, bringfamine, shortages and rationing.</li></ul>1946: thenewlyborn UN putsSpain in quarantine. <br />Hugecrowdssupport Franco at Madrid’s Plaza de Oriente.<br /><ul><li>1946-52: theyears of autarchybring a slighteconomicrecovery,based in the re-building of Spanishinfrastructure.
  25. 25. 1953: Pacts of Madrid paveSpain’sway back totheinternationalcommunity. Economicrestrictionsslowlygive in.</li></li></ul><li>As thealliancewiththe USA growsstronger, politicalchangesfollow:<br />… and a boomingeconomywillgiverisetothe so-called “SpanishMiracle”.<br />Farewell “OldShirts” <br /><ul><li>Hello “Technocrats”</li></ul>Throughoutthe 1960’s a new, generation of younger, college-educatedtechnicians and politicianswillinjectfreshbloodintoFrancoism….<br />
  26. 26. But, in spite of the “miracle”, social and politicalunrest set in…<br />
  27. 27. TheagedGeneralisimoseeksforcontinuity of hispoliticalregime...<br />1969<br />1973<br />
  28. 28. 1973: Carrero Blanco killedby ETA bombing<br />
  29. 29. Franco’s Funeral wasattendedbyhugecrowds in allmajorSpanishtowns<br />
  30. 30. Post Franco Facts<br /><ul><li>1975: </li></ul> Juan Carlos de Borboncrowned as King of Spain, Monarchyisthusrestoredafter 46 years.<br /><ul><li>1977: </li></ul>Legalization of theSpanishCommunistParty. <br /><ul><li>1978:</li></ul> A new Constitution, introducingParliamentaryDemocracy, isswornbythe King.<br /><ul><li>1982: </li></ul>TheSocialistWorkersParty of Spainwins General Elections. Felipe Gonzalezisthe new Prime Minister.<br />
  31. 31. Franco’sLegacy<br />No convictionsnorchargesnorenquirieshaveeverbeenmadeforthecrimescommitedeitherduringorafterthe Civil War.<br />Francoistmonuments and streetnamesstillexist in manyparts of Spain.<br />Former Franco minister Fraga Iribarne foundedthe Popular Party (PP), which has severalstrongholds in someSpanishregions, and isabouttowinthe 2012 General Election.<br />

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