“How Effective is the IEA’s Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Regulatory Framework?” A Critique of the Global Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Industries Protection
“How Effective is the IEA’s Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Regulatory Framework?”A Critique of the Global Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions fromFossil Fuel Industries ProtectionJENKINS DIVO MACEDO, M.A. IDSC M.S. Cand., Environmental Science and Policy 2014 What is the Carbon Capture and Storage/SequestraAon? CCS is a process where CO2 from a sta@onary source is captured, transported, and permanently sequestered, typically in underground forma@ons. Why the CCS Framework? “Carbon capture and sequestra@on (CCS) has long been touted as a poten@ally cri@cal means for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from carbon-‐intense industrial sources” (Campopiano and Henderson, 2013). Source: WRI 2012April 25, 2013
Merits of the CO₂ SequestraAon q The sequestra@on of CO2 enhances oil reserve recovery (EOR) by 30-‐60% or more than conven@onal systems. q Sulfur deriva@ves captured through the CCS system can be used for manufacturing fer@lizers. q CCS and Federal Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) > EPA’s Class VI well injec@on systems. Demerits of the CO₂ SequestraAon q High cost associated with CCS technology comparable with non-‐CCS technologies. q Economic depression impacts CCS development. q Diversion of climate change and government policies towards “ﬁts and starts” regulatory approaches. q The developing carbon based markets induce some uncertainty over the carbon price, raising ques@ons of viability of the value of carbon credits. q The lack of eﬀec@ve data collec@on methodology for eﬀec@ve and reliable CO2 sequestra@on report. q Environmental protec@on regula@on such as the Clean Air Art, Na@onal Environmental Policy Act, and the California Environmental Quality Act present regulatory challenges to CCS. q Decreasing governmental incen@ves. q Public distrust of CCS technology and eﬀec@veness.
Ramiﬁca@on of CCS Development q Reduced cost of CCS technologies q Concurrent environmental regulatory programs should be less restric@ve of CCS programs. q Provision of incen@ves for the usability of CCS technologies. q The development of eﬀec@ve and reliable data collec@on and processing methodologies. q Increase public awareness through educa@on to reduce s@gma@za@on associated with CCS technologies. q Introduce cap and trade system/carbon price to enhance eﬀec@ve regula@on. Lessons Learned from this Cri@cal Research q The CCS approach is purely base on the cost-‐beneﬁt analy@cal framework to enhance the global economy by con@nuously inves@ng in the fossil fuel energy industries. q It is more of an economic decision than environmental. q There are lots of research done about the promising aspira@ons of CCS programs, but very li`le its environmental consequences. q The IEA thinks fossil fuel is not going to be depleted for a long @me, thus why not consume more and try reducing our ecological footprint? q CCS is just another regulatory framework to promote the con@nuous burning of fossil fuel in order to maintain the status quo, while reducing new CO2 emissions into the Earth’s atmosphere. q Do we want to really go this way?