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  1. 1. Hormones
  2. 2. Steroid and Nonsteroid Hormones Nonsteroid hormones are synthesized from amino acids instead of cholesterol. 1 Some nonsteroid hormones are 2 Protein hormones that have protein hormones. These carbohydrate groups attached to their hormones are made up of long, amino acid chains are classified as a folded chains of amino acids. whole separate group called EXAMPLES (protein hormones): glycoprotein hormones. EXAMPLES: insulin, glucagon, calcitonin, prolactin, Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing and growth hormone. hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and chorionic gonadotropin. 3 Peptide hormones 1 are smaller than protein hormones. They are 4 Amino acid derivativeSteroid hormones are manufactured by endocrine made up of short chains hormones are derivedcells from cholesterol. They can easily pass through of amino acids. from a single amino acidthe phospholipid plasma membrane of target cells EXAMPLES: Oxytocin, molecule. Two majorbecause they are lipid-soluable. EXAMPLES: somatostatin, subgroups of amino acidcortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, progesterone, and antidiuretic hormone, derivative hormones are and melanocyte- amine hormones andtestosterone. stimulating hormone. iodinated amino acids. 6 5 Amine hormones are Iodinated amino acids synthesized by modifying a are produced by the thyroid single molecule of the amino gland and are synthesized acid tyrosine. EXAMPLES: by adding iodine atoms to norepinephrine, epinephrine, the tyrosine molecule. and melatonin. EXAMPLES: thyroxine, triiodothyronine.
  3. 3. Steriod and Nonsteroid ***Directions: Find your way through the maze using the color blue to get to steroid hormones Hormones and red to get to nonsteroid hormones while passing each description (numbered on previous page) of each category of hormones. Nonsteroid hormones are synthesized from amino acids instead of cholesterol. 6 3 1 4 2 5 Steroid hormones are manufactured by endocrine cells from cholesterol. They can easily pass through the phospholipid plasma membrane of target cells because they are lipid- soluable. EXAMPLES: cortisol,START 1 aldosterone, progesterone, (22) andestosterone.
  4. 4. How do hormones work?• LOCK AND KEY: hormones bind to specific receptors on or in a cell. Hormones will only bind to receptor molecules that "fit" them exactly. (23)What happens when hormones combine?• Synergism is when different types of hormones combine and end up having a greater effect on a target cell. Combined hormones may exhibit permissiveness. This occurs when the first hormone "permits" the full action of the second hormone. Antagonism may also occur when hormones combine. One hormone produces the opposite effect of another hormone. It can be used to "fine-tune" the activity of target cells.
  5. 5. Lining of theHuman gastrointestinal track contains cells thatBody produce bothMaze endocrine and exocrine secretions. A tissue that Hormones like forms on the gastrin, secretin, lining of the cholecystokinin- pancreozymin and uterus as an interface ghrelin. between the circulatory systems of the mother and developing child.
  6. 6. I spy… a gland I spy… has ain themediastinum. Its I spy… specific area in its walllarge in children containsuntil they hit somepuberty and it hormone-starts to shirk producinguntil its just fat cells. Theand fibrous hormone istissue. Two of atrialthe hormones natriuretic.are thymosin The Hormoneand deals withthymopoietin blood volume or blood pressure. Heart Thymus,
  7. 7. Endocrine System1. The endocrine system is 1. The endocrine system is made up responsible for the regulation of of glands that produce and secrete hormones in the body. It works hormones, chemical substances with nervous system by produced in the body that regulate stimulating the brain to release the activity of cells or organs. hormone to stimulate glands like These hormones regulate the thyroid glands to secrete thyroid bodys growth, metabolism (the hormones. physical and chemical processes of the body), and sexual development.
  8. 8. Glands• Pituitary Gland-Pea-sized gland located at the base of the skull between the optic nerves. The pituitary is sometimes referred to as the "master gland" as it controls hormone functions such as our temperature, thyroid activity, growth during childhood, urine production, testosterone production in males and ovulation and estrogen production in females.• Pineal Gland-Pine cone shaped gland of the endocrine system located between cerebral hemispheres. A structure of the diencephalon of the brain, the pineal gland produces several important hormones including melatonin. Melatonin influences sexual development and sleep-wake cycles. The pineal gland connects the endocrine system with the nervous system in that it converts nerve signals from the sympathetic system of the peripheral nervous system into hormone signals.
  9. 9. Glands Cont.• Thyroid Gland-The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck, below the larynx. The small, two-inch gland consists of two lobes, one on each side of the windpipe, connected by tissue called the isthmus.• Made up of two types of cells: follicular cells and Parafollicular cells. The thyroid plays an important role in regulating the bodys metabolism and calcium balance. The harder the cells work, the harder the organs work. The calcitonin hormone works together with the parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels in the body.• Levels of hormones secreted by the thyroid are controlled by the pituitary glands thyroid-stimulating hormone, which in turn is controlled by the hypothalamus.
  10. 10. Hormone source target Principal actionGrowth hormone- Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates secretionreleasing hormone (somatotrophs) (release) of growth(GRH) hormoneGrowth hormone- Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Inhabits secretion ofinhibiting hormone (GIH), (somatotrophs) growth hormoneor somatostatinCorticotropin- releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release ofhormone (TRH) (corticotrophs) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)Thyrotropin- releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release ofhormone (TRH) (thyrotrophs) thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH)Gonadotropin- Releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release of (gonadotrophs) gonadotropins (FSH and LH)Prolactin- releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates secretion ofhormone (PRH) (corticotrophs) ProlactinProlactin- inhibiting Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Inhibits secretion ofHormone (PIH) (corticotrophs) prolactin
  11. 11. Growth hormone (GH) Adenohypophysis General Promotes growth by(somatotropin [STH]) (somatotropin [STH]) stimulating protein anabolism and fat mobilizationProlactin (PRL) (lactogenic Adenohypophysis (lactotrophs) Mammary glands (alveolar Promotes milk secretionhormone) secretory cells)Thyroid- stimulating Adenohypophysis (thyrotrophs) Thyroid gland Stimulates development andhormones (TSH) secretion in the thyroid glandAdrenocorticotropic hormone Adenohypophysis Adrenal cortex Promotes development and(ACTH) (corticotrophs) secretion in the adrenal cortexFollicle- stimulating hormone Adenohypophysis Gonads (primary sex organs) Female: promotes development(FSH) (gonadotrophs) of ovarian follicle; simulates estrogen secretion Male: promotes development of testis; stimulates sperm productionLuteinizing hormone (LH) Adenohypophysis Gonads Female: triggers ovulation; (gonadotrophs) promotes development of corpus luteumAntidiuretic hormone (ADH) Neurohypophysis Kidney male: stimulates production of testosterones promotes water retention by kidney tubulesOxytocin (OT) Neurohypophysis Uterus and mammary glands Stimulates uterine contractions; stimulates ejection of milk into mammary ducts
  12. 12. Aldosterone Adrenal cortex (zona kidney Stimulates kidney glomerulosa) tubules to conserve sodium, which, in turn, triggers the release of ADH and the resulting conservation of by the kidneyCortisol (hydrocortisone) Adrenal cortex (zona General Influences metabolism of fasciculata) food molecules; in large amounts, it has an antinflammatory effectAdrenal androgens Adrenal cortex (zona Sex, organs, other Exact role uncertain, but reticularis) effectors may support sexual functionAdrenal estrogens Adrenal cortex (zona Sex organs Thought to be reticularis) physiologically insignificantEpinephrine (adrenaline) Adrenal medulla Sympathetic effectors Enhances and prolongs the effects of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous systemNorepinephrine Adrenal medulla Sympathetic effectors Enhances and prolongs the effects of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
  13. 13. Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroid gland (follicular General Increase rate of cells) metabolismTetraiodothyronine (T4), Thyroid gland (follicular General Increase rate ofor thyroxine cells) metabolism (usually converted to T3 first)calcitonin (CT) Thyroid gland Bone tissue Increase calcium storage (parafollicular cells) in bone, lowering blood Ca ++ levelsParathyroid hormone Parathyroid glans Bone tissue and kidney Increase calcium removal(PTH) or parathormone from storage in bone and produces the active form of vitamin D in the kidneys, increasing absorption of calcium by intestines and increasing blood Ca ++ levels
  14. 14. Glucagon Pancreatic islets (alpha General Promotes movement of [a] cells or A cells) glucose from storage and into the blood.Insulin Pancreatic islets (beta [b] General Promotes movement of cells or B cells) glucose out of the blood and into cellsSomatostatin Pancreatic islets (delta [d] Pancreatic cells and other Can have general effects cells D cells) effectors in the body, but primary role seems to be regulation of secretion of other pan pancreatic hormonesPancreatic polypeptide Pancreatic islets Intestinal cells and other Exact function uncertain, (Pancreatic polypeptide effectors but seems to influence [PP] or F cells) absorption in the digestive tract.
  15. 15. The adrenal glands are alsocalled suprarenal glands.These are endocrine glandsthat lie like caps on top of thekidneys. The adrenal medullasecretes both adrenalin andnoradrenalin, also known asepinephrine andnorepinephrine respectively.These hormones are involvedin the body’s “fight or flight”response. Can you find them?
  16. 16. Parathyroid glands aresmall glands of theendocrine system whichare located in the neckbehind the thyroid.Parathyroid glandscontrol the calcium inour bodies--how muchcalcium is in our bones,and how much calciumis in our blood.
  17. 17. The gonads pertain to the anatomical part of the body where sex cells (gametes) are synthesized. For instance, the gonads in females are theMale ovaries whereas inTestes males are the testes.
  18. 18. The pancreas is a glandorgan in the digestive andendocrine system ofvertebrates. It is both anendocrine gland producingseveral importanthormones, includinginsulin, glucagon, andsomatostatin, as well as anexocrine gland, secretingpancreatic juice containingdigestive enzymes thatpass to the small intestine.These enzymes help in thefurther breakdown of thecarbohydrates, protein, andfat in the chyme.
  19. 19. Works Cited• Thibodeau, Gary A. Anatomy & Physiology. seventeenth. St. Louis: Library Of Congress Cataloging In Publication Data, 2003. 1106. Print.• N.p., E-mail. <http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-Does-the- Adrenal-Gland-Do.asp&xgt;.• http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/zoology/animalphysiology /endocrinesystem• http://www.emedicinehealth.com/anatomy_of_the_endocrine_system/ar ticle_em.htm