Powerpoint Us WWII Homefront

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  • Powerpoint Us WWII Homefront

    1. 1. Cover Sheet Information <ul><li>Name: Pam Ogilvy and Karissa Piper </li></ul><ul><li>School Building/District: Beachwood High School/Beachwood City Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Course and Section Number: EDY 575; 980 </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment Option: PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Grade Level: 10 th Grade US History </li></ul>
    2. 2. World War II: Transitions on the Home Front A brief economic and political overview
    3. 3. Transition to War <ul><li>While America declared neutrality until after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, steps were taken by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to get the American economy and people ready for a potential war. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passed the Selective Training and Service Act (first peacetime draft) in 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Draft Cards: </li></ul>
    4. 4. Transition to War: Economic <ul><li>The government established in Aug. 1941 the Office of Price Administration (OPA) to set maximum prices and in December 1941, rationing took effect. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationed items included: gasoline, tires, coffee, sugar, meat, butter, canned goods, silk stockings </li></ul></ul>        
    5. 5. Economic: Victory Gardens The government encouraged people to grow their own food to help the war effort and to supplement the rationed food supply.
    6. 6. Victory Garden Poster
    7. 7. Transition to War: Economic <ul><li>The government raised money by increasing the number of people who paid income taxes and through selling war bonds. </li></ul>
    8. 8. War Bonds
    9. 9. War Bonds
    10. 10. Transition to War: Political <ul><li>In his State of the Union Address on Jan. 6, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt outlined the natural rights of mankind, which were obviously being abolished under the Axis Powers. These natural rights were distilled into four freedoms that he believed all people were entitled to. (This is 11 months before Pearl Harbor is bombed by the Japanese.) </li></ul><ul><li>Four Freedoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of Worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom from Want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom from Fear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norman Rockwell interpreted these four freedoms in pictures to help support the war effort. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Freedom of Speech
    12. 12. Freedom of Worship
    13. 13. Freedom from Want
    14. 14. Freedom from Fear
    15. 15. Beginning of War <ul><li>When these freedoms are infringed upon by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Americans are mentally prepared to go to war. </li></ul>Explosion of the USS Arizona's forward magazines. This occurred at 0806.   National Archives #80G32637   Almost the same instant caught by another photographer with color film. National Archives #80GK13513
    16. 16. Pearl Harbor A fireball engulfs the USS Shaw moments after an attack by Japanese warplanes on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in December 1941.
    17. 17. Pearl Harbor bombing. California hit. Battered by aerial bombs and torpedoes, the USS California settles slowly into the mud and muck of Pearl Harbor. Clouds of black, oily smoke pouring up from the California and her stricken sister ships conceal all but the hull of the capsized USS Oklahoma at the extreme right., 1942. Pearl Harbor: Destruction of the Pacific Fleet
    18. 19. Pearl Harbor: The Aftermath <ul><li>Casualties </li></ul><ul><li>US Army: 218 KIA, 364 WIA. US Navy: 2,008 KIA, 710 WIA. US Marine Corps: 109 KIA, 69 WIA. </li></ul><ul><li>Civilians: 68 KIA, 35 WIA. TOTAL: </li></ul><ul><li>2,403 KIA, 1,178 WIA </li></ul><ul><li>KIA: Killed In Action </li></ul><ul><li>WIA: Wounded in Action </li></ul><ul><li>For more information on specific battleships, documented photos, Japanese pictures of the bombing, etc. go to: http://www.de220.com/Pearl%20Harbor/Pearl%20Harbor.htm </li></ul>
    19. 20. War Declared <ul><li>On Dec. 8, 1941, FDR went before Congress and asked for a declaration of war against Japan. He started his speech by saying, “Yesterday, December 7, 1941-a date which will live in infamy- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. ” </li></ul>
    20. 21. War’s Upon Us <ul><li>With the declaration of war, American production has got to get moving! </li></ul><ul><li>In 1942 the War Production Board (WPB) is created to increase military production. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converted existing factories to wartime production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built new factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled raw materials into different industries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1943 the Office of War Mobilization (OWM) is created to coordinate government agencies involved in the war effort. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined amount of raw materials that could be diverted to civilians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Nylon used for parachutes, not pantyhose. Fashion styles changed, as fabric couldn’t be sacrificed to make pleats or cuffs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Women are recruited to fill the positions men are leaving as they go to war. The most iconic image is of Rosie the Riveter. </li></ul>
    21. 22. Rosie the Riveter
    22. 23. Rosie the Riveter , image by Norman Rockwell
    23. 24. Some Real “Rosie the Riveters”
    24. 25. “Rosies” in action
    25. 26. More “Rosies”
    26. 27. Women and Overall War Production <ul><li>From 1940 to 1944, 6 million new women joined the workforce, most in clerical and service jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Women were paid less than men for the same work. </li></ul><ul><li>African American women and women over 40 yrs old had a harder time finding employers. </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment dropped from 14.6% in 1940 to 1.2% in 1944. </li></ul><ul><li>Average weekly wages rose 65 percent, and manufacturing workers saw their real income jump 27 percent. </li></ul><ul><li>Earnings nearly doubled between 1939 and 1945. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1940, government arsenals employed 22,000 workers and by 1943, they employed 486,000. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1940 to 1945 America built 300,000 aircraft; 88,000 landing craft; 215 submarines, 147 aircraft carriers, 952 other warships, 5,200 merchant ships, 88,410 tanks, 6.5 million rifles, and 40 billion bullets. </li></ul>
    27. 28. War Workers
    28. 29. WWII: Transitions on the Home Front <ul><li>Due to pre-war/early war economic and political preparations by the US government, Americans were better able to deal with the onset of war. </li></ul><ul><li>These preparations allowed civilians to more effectively contribute to the war effort, which in turn helped soldiers. We will look at the military impact next. </li></ul>

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