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  1. 1. Introduction to Disease 1
  2. 2. Chapter 1 Multimedia Asset Directory Slide 9 Diagnosis Video Slide 10 PET Scans Animation Slide 14 Taking Vital Signs Video Slide 15 Taking Patient History Video Slide 21 Immunity Video
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define disease and disease-related terms </li></ul><ul><li>Define and discuss the manifestations of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Define terms used to describe disease </li></ul><ul><li>Explain diagnosis of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Define and discuss the chief causes of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Identify risk factors related to disease </li></ul>
  4. 4. Disease <ul><li>Homeostasis – all cells, tissues, organs, and systems work to maintain equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Disease – disequilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Pathophysiology – study of the physiological processes leading up to disease </li></ul><ul><li>Pathology – study of disease in general </li></ul>
  5. 5. Table 1-1: Ten Leading Causes of Death, 2004, U.S.
  6. 6. Table 1-2: Major Causes of Disease
  7. 7. Manifestations of Disease <ul><li>Signs are objective evidence of disease observed on physical examination, such as abnormal pulse or respiratory rate, fever, sweating, and pallor </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms are subjective indications of disease reported by the patient, such as pain, dizziness, and itching. Certain sets of signs and symptoms occur concurrently in some diseases and their combination is referred to as a syndrome. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Diagnosis <ul><li>Nature of a disease </li></ul><ul><li>Includes signs and symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Syndrome – signs and symptoms occur concurrently </li></ul>Syndrome Diagnosis Signs Symptoms
  9. 9. Click here to view a video on the topic of diagnosis. Return to Directory
  10. 10. Click here to view an animation on the topic of PET scans. Return to Directory
  11. 11. Syndrome High Blood Pressure Decreased Oxygenation Dehydration – dry mucous membranes, poor skin turgor Dizziness Shortness of Breath Nausea and Vomiting Disease
  12. 12. Objective Evidence of Disease <ul><li>Laboratory tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinalysis, blood chemistry, electrocardiography, and radiography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic-imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine allow physicians to visualize structural and functional changes. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Objective Evidence of Disease (cont.) <ul><li>Biopsy – surgical removal and analysis of tissue samples </li></ul><ul><li>Physical examination </li></ul><ul><li>Medical history </li></ul><ul><li>Family history </li></ul><ul><li>Medication history </li></ul>
  14. 14. Click here to view a video on the topic of taking vital signs. Return to Directory
  15. 15. Click here to view a video on the topic of taking patient histories. Return to Directory
  16. 16. Descriptions of Disease <ul><li>Prognosis: the predicted course and outcome of the disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State the chances for complete recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict the permanent loss of function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability of survival </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Descriptions of Disease (cont.) <ul><li>The course of a disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute: Quick onset, short duration, e.g., influenza, measles, and the common cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic: A disease may begin insidiously and be long-lived; e.g., arthritis, hypertension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal: A disease that will end in death </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Stage of Disease <ul><li>Remission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms subside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exacerbation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recur in all severity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Returns weeks or months later </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Outcome of Disease <ul><li>Complications – Diseases from diseases, e.g., kidney failure secondary to diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Sequela – Aftermath of disease, e.g., paralysis following polio </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality – Measure of death attributed to disease </li></ul><ul><li>Morbidity – Measure of disability </li></ul>
  20. 20. Etiology Causes of Disease Pathogenesis Microbes Genetics Environment Idiopathic Inflammation Lesion Change in structure or function Morbidity Mortality Sequela Complications
  21. 21. Click here to view a video on the topic of immunity. Return to Directory
  22. 22. Risk Factors <ul><li>Predispose an individual to the development of a disease. </li></ul><ul><li>A risk factor is not equivalent to a cause. </li></ul><ul><li>May be enviornmental, chemical, physiological, psychological or genetic. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Treatment of Disease <ul><li>Includes procedures for the cure or reduction of symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the nature of the disease, characteristics of the patient, and goals of the patient and physician. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all diseases are curable. </li></ul>