Phased-Array Radar Talk Jorge Salazar

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This talk will give an overview of the current phased array radar systems and its requirements for weather observations, performance in sensitivity, antenna design requirement for dual-polarized weather radars.

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Phased-Array Radar Talk Jorge Salazar

  1. 1. PHASED ARRAY RADAR SYSTEMS FOR WEATHER OBSERVATION National Center For Atmosphere Research (NCAR) EOL Seminar Presented by Jorge L. Salazar-Cerreno University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA R e-mail: jlsalaza@engin.umass.educasa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere April 23, 2011 1
  2. 2. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere Outline • Introduction • Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars • Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars • Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar • CASA phased array radar
  3. 3. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Introduction • 1905: Phased array transmission was originally developed in 1905 by Nobel Laureate Karl Ferdinand Braun who demonstrated enhanced transmission of radio waves in one direction. • 1941: At the MIT Rad Lab , Luis Alvarez invented a new type of phased array antenna having excellent radiation F-16 characteristics at 48MHz. Later the B1 US fighter uses AN/APQ-164 design was used AN/APQ-7 EAGLE 3 cm passive electronically scanned radar • 1960-1980 : A rapid evolution of passive phased-array antennas for detection of ballistic missile attacks. The most famous radars are the SPY-1 developed during the 1970’s and the AN/APQ-164 Patriot AN/MPQ-53/65 fitted in the B1B and similar ones in the Radar Set is a passive Lockheed Martin, The Soviet MIG-31. AN/TPS-77 is an L-Band, electronically phased array
  4. 4. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Introduction (cont) • >1980: Enabling technology Gallium Arsenic Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit (GaAs MMIC) permitted the integration of low cost-phases shifters and power amplifiers permitting the mass production of AESAS (Active Electronic Phased-array antennas). • 2006: NSSL is collaborating with the federal agencies to explore Ways to transition from maintaining a number of single-function radar systems, used for aircraft surveillance and AESA to field will be the weather observations, to a single Northrop-Grumman multimission, phased array radar network AN/APG-77 radar (MPAR) • Today, several efforts to incorporate SiGe, Si RF CMOS in the panel Array . A 128 T/R channel, Low Power Density Panel Array has been designed at X-Band that integrates the A 128 T/R channel, Low following components and circuits. MPAR Power Density Panel Array has been designed at X-Band
  5. 5. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Phased-array weather research projects CIRPAS-MWR-05XP (Mobile Weather Radar, 2005, X-Band, Phased-array) (Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies) • Designed for military application in 1980 Courtesy: Chad Baldi NPS and ProSensing Inc • X-band Freq-Phase-Mechanically, • Single polarization (H) • Scanning time : ~42 sec • Scan volume: for 360: azim. x 40: elev. • Cost: ~10 million Goshen County Wyoming tornado that was interceptedAnalysis of Performance Characteristics of the Naval Postgraduate SchoolMWR-05XP Mobile Weather Radar By: Jeffrey B. Knorr , December 2005 during VORTEX 2 (June 5th 2010)
  6. 6. casacasa Engineering Research Center for Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Phased-Array weather research projects NWRT-PAR (phase-phase) (National Weather Radar Testbed-PAR) 19 August 2007 - Phase-phase, S-band, V-polarization. - Scanning time (~26 sec for 90: azim. x 40 : elev.) - Only single polarization and BW=1MHZ -Cost: ~ $27 millions and single polarization Agile-Beam Phased Array Radar Weather Observations PAR (VCP 12 BMX) By: D.S Zrink, J.K Kimpel, D.E Forsyth, A.Shapiro, G. Crain, AMS, 60 sector November 2007 0.5 oversampling in azimuth Images ~ 43 s WSR-88D (VCP 12 ) Images ~ 4.1 min SPY-1 NWRT From: Rapid Sampling of Severe Storms with the National Weather Radar Testbed Phased Array Radar, OU Seminar Series, October 2007, Pam
  7. 7. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Multi Function Phased Array Antenna (MPAR) Progress Current challenges: • Ultra-low cost array (~ $50k / m2) and Low cost in operations and maintenance • Dual polarization (Xpol better than -40dB) Modest HPA power (8W peak) base on ATSR polarization mode LRU Low cost (<$20k ea) • Cooling subsystem and antenna calibration Panel: 78 LRU (~$1.5M) Douglas Carlson, Jeffrey Herd, Sean Duffy, mark Weber, Glenn Brigham, Michael Rachlin, Daniel Curcio, Cheryl Liss, Chris Weigand,. "Low cost Phased Array Radar: The Multifunction Phased Array radar (MPAR) for Air Traffic Control and Weather Surveillance". M/A-COM Technology Solutions Inc. Lowell, MA.
  8. 8. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Phased-array radar weather requirements • Inertial free beam steering • Dual-polarized radars • High scanning performance • Flexible scan strategy • Efficient use of the radiated energy • Low profile and low weight radars • Modular architecture • High reliability and maintainability • Low cost and low life-cycle cost • Capability to work in network
  9. 9. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar What kind of phased-array antenna architecture we can use? Quasi optical phased-array Frequency-scan array antennas reflector Phased-array antennas Digital beam forming Lens antennas/Rotman Lens
  10. 10. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Phased-array antenna types Frequency scanning arrays Advantages: • Series feed arrays are frequency-sensitive • Simple architecture, simple design • Low cost, low profile, low weight. • Implemented using MS patch antennas Disadvantages: • Limited scanning range ( <30 deg) CIRPAS-MWR-05XP • Lead to bandwidth restrictions (10deg/200MHz) • 1D scanning • Single polarization ( H or V) • Use common power source • Low efficiency (ferrite phase shifters) Examples: • IWRAP, MWR-05XP
  11. 11. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Phased-array antenna types Phased-array antenna Advantages: • Improve noise behavior since the TR modules contain itself low noise amplifiers • Permit ultra low sidelobe levels (<-30dB) • Improves the efficiency since power is distributed across thousand of elements. • Higher levels of reliability , permitting a failure up to 10% of the elements, without affect the antenna performance. • Dual-polarized and 2D-scanning up to 45deg. 0.3-3GHz Vivaldi EASA Canadian SKA Technology Research • Low profile, low weight. Disadvantages: • Cost (>$1M/m2 at X-band) • Polarization isolation • Examples: • SKA, MPAR, CASA Phased-array S-band MPAR AESA X-band CASA M-AESA
  12. 12. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Design considerations for phased-array antennas in weather radars • Scanning performance • Gain loss vs. scan angle • Beam broadening beam effect vs. scan angle • Antenna mismatch vs. scan angle • Polarization distortion vs. scan angle • TR module architecture and technology • Reliability and graceful degradation • Production cost and life cycle cost
  13. 13. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Scanning performance: Gain loss vs. beam position Measured Active Element Pattern Port H/V stick 10 0 -5 10HH Active Element Pattern in dB -10 10HV 10VH -15 10VV Composition of the array pattern M=32, d=0.5, Uniform distribution Active Element Pattern and Reflection Coefficient (mag) Gain scan loss vs. scan angle 1 0 -20 -25 • Element pattern roll -off 0.9 -2 -30 -4 0.8 AF s • Reflection coefficient -6 -35 AF Element AF 0.7 -40 Element TotalElement -80 -60 -40 -20 Total Theta in deg 0 Total 40 20 c 60 80 4d x d y N x N y -8 E-Patterns Pattern dB 0.6 Gθ, φ   [1  Γθ, φ  ]cosθ 2 -10 λ2 0.5 1 ACR CASE4:0.54,with Backplane -12 0.9 E-Patternc 0.4 cos 1.2 Active Reflection Coefficient (Magnitude) • -14 0.8 The mutual coupling in elements 0.3 0.7 E-plane( =0) H-plane( =90) -16 can affect the scanning 0.6 0.2 -18 performance of the array 0.5 0.1 -20 0.4 -80 0.3 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 0 Theta (deg) 0 10 0.2 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0.1 Scan: 30 deg,ScanLoss: 0dB,Δθ33:0 º º º Scan: deg, Loss: -3dB, Δθ :3.16 Loss: -0.63dB, Δθ3:1.31 Scan: 600 deg, angle (deg) 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 theta (deg) 13
  14. 14. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Scanning performance: Beam broadening vs. scan beam position Broadside Aele ( )  Aele (o ) cos( ) ø 3  3o B f / cos( ) Antenna 0.95 0.78 1.34 1.1 -25dB -40dB Phased Array Antenna Handbook Second Edition, Robert J. Mailloux 14
  15. 15. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Phased array radar performance for a single node Azimuth resolution (Azr) Azimuth Resolution Vs.Range 54x46 Phased Array Antenna H:0.05km Azr-max: 1km, Azr-med: 0.7km Mechanically Steered km Azimuth Resolution Vs.Range Azimuth Resolution Vs.Range 54x46 Phased Array Antenna H:0.05km 54x46 Phased Array Antenna H:3.2km C(6x60º) Azr-max: 1.1km, Azr-med: 0.74km km Azr R, ,    R sin(3 ) Azr-max: 1.2km, Azr-med: 0.83km Mechanically Steered km C(6x60º) km -30 -30 -30 -20 2.5 2.5 -20 -20 2.5 2.5 60o 60o Range in km Range in km Range in km Range in km -10 22 -10 -10 22 R: Maximum radar range 0 360oo 360 1.5 00 1.5 1.5 1.5 3  3o B f / cos  Ø : Scan angle 10 11 10 10 11 Ø3: 3dB Beamwidth 20 0.5 20 20 0.5 0.5 Bf: Broadening factor 1.2 for Taylor -25dB 0.5 30 30 30 -20 -20 00 2020 -20 -20 00 20 20 Range in km in km Range Range in km Range in km Az(worst): 11.0 km Az(worst): km Az(worst): 1.21.1 km (10%) Az(worst): km (20%) Az(med): 0.7 km H=50m H=3.2km Az(med): 0.74 km (6%) Az(med): 0.83 km (4%) Az(med): 0.8 km Azimuth Resolution Vs.Range Azimuth Resolution Vs.Range Azimuth Resolution Vs.Range Azimuth Resolution Vs.Range Elevation coverage at maximum scanning range 12 deg (± 6 deg ) 60x46 Phased Array Antenna H:0.05km 60x46 Phased Array Antenna H:3.2km Azr-max: 1.4km, Azr-med: 0.79km B(4x90º) Azr-max: 1.4km, Azr-med: 0.88km B(4x90º) km km 64x46 Phased Array Antenna H:0.05km 64x46 Phased Array Antenna H:3.2km Azr-max: 2km, Azr-med: 0.84km A(3x120º) Azr-max: 2km, Azr-med: 0.94km A(3x120º) km km -30 -30 -30 -30 Hight Single node -20 -20 2.5 2.5 -20 -20 2.5 2.5 90o 90o Range in km Range in km Range in km Range in km -10 -10 22 -10 -10 120o 22 120o Cone of silence 00 1.5 1.5 00 1.5 1.5 3 km 6% 6% 10 10 11 10 10 11 2km1.38km 12º 0.5km 20 20 0.5 0.5 20 20 0.5 0.5 N2 30 30 30 30 R=30 km R=30 km -20 -20 00 20 20 -20 -20 00 20 20 Range in km Range in km Range in km Range in km R=6.25 km Az(worst): 1.4 km (40%) Az(worst): 1.4 km (40%) Az(worst): 2 km (100%) Az(worst): 2.0 km (100%) 0.8 km (14%) Az(med): 0.88 km (10%) Az(med): 0.94 km (18%) Az(med): 0.84 (20%) 15
  16. 16. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Phased array radar performance for a single node Minimum Radar sensitivity (Zmin) Minimum Radar Sensitivity (Ze) Radar Parameters CPmin R 2 L2 SNR Z min  Parameter Symb Units Value Pt G 23 3 K w 2 Frequency f GHz 9.41 Wavelength λ m 0.032 Peak transmitter power Pt W 432 E-Plane beamwidth (at broadside) θ3 deg 1.83 H-Plane beamwidth (at broadside) ø3 deg 1.83 31 km E-Plane scan range Δθ deg 12 6.25 km H-Plane scan range Δø deg 60-90-120 Signal to noise ratio SNR dB 0 0.625 km Noise figure NF dB 4.5 Gain (at broadside) G dB 39 Maximun radar range R km 31 Range resolution ΔR m 25 Bandwidth BW MHz 6 Pulse repetition frequency PRF kHz 3.399 Radar Pulse Scheme System loss L dB 2 Pulse width т us 4.16-41.67 4.16us 41.67us 4.16us 41.67us Pulse compression gain PCG dB 14-24 Minimum detectable signal P min dBm -103.6 Duty cycle D % 18 Dielectric constant of water K - 0.93 Radar constant C 2.5x1016 Time (us) 41.67us 207 us References: [6] 16
  17. 17. casa Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Overview of phased-array antenna for weather radars Phased-array antenna requirements for weather radars Phased-array antenna design considerations for weather radar 5. CASA phased-array radar Phased array radar performance for a single node Minimum Radar sensitivity (Zmin) Minimum Radar Sensitivity (Ze) Minimun Sensitivity Vs.Range Minimun Sensitivity Vs.Range Radar Parameters Minimun Sensitivity Vs.Range 54x46 Phased Array Antenna 54x46 Phased Array Antenna 54x46 Phased Array Antenna Tx Pow er: 603mW/elem 432W/secPmin: -104 SNR: 0dB NF:4.5dB Tx Pow er: 603mW/elem 432W/secPmin: -104 SNR: 0dB NF:4.5dB Tx Pow er: 603mW/elem 432W/secPmin: -104 SNR: 0dB NF:4.5dB t1: 4.17us BW1: 6MHz PRF1: 3.399KHz dBm PCG1:25mag CPmin R 2 L2 SNR t1: 4.17us BW1: 6MHz PRF1: 3.399KHz dBm PCG1:25mag t1: 4.17us BW1: 6MHz PRF1: 3.399KHz dBm PCG1:25mag t2: 41.7us BW2: 6MHz PRF2: 3.399KHz dBm PCG2:250mag H:3.2km t2: 41.7us BW2: 6MHz PRF2: 3.399KHz dBm PCG2:250mag H:0.05km t2: 41.7us BW2: 6MHz PRF2: 3.399KHz dBm PCG2:250mag H:3.2km t2: 41.7us BW2: 6MHz PRF2: 3.399KHz dBm PCG2:250mag H:0.05km Zemax: 5.43dBZ, Ze med: 3.33dBZ Z min  Mechanically2.22dBZ Zemax: 5.23dBZ, Ze med: Steered Mechanically Steered dBZ dBZ Zemax: 6.08dBZ, Ze med: 3.47dBZ C(6x60º) 6.03dBZ, C(6x60º) 2.47dBZ dBZ -30 -30 -30 Pt G 23 3 K w 2 -20 -20 15 15 10 -20 15 10 10 Range in km Range in km Range in km -10 -10 5 -10 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 G ,   r A D(1   ,   ) cos  2 -5 10 10 -5 10 -5 -10 -10 -10 20 20 20 -15 -15 -15 30 30 30 -20 -20 0 0 20 20 -20 0 20 Range in km Range in km Range in km Elevation coverage at maximum scanning range 12 deg (± 6 deg ) Ze(worst): 5.43 dBZ Ze(worst): 5.23 dBZ Minimun Sensitivity Vs.Range H=50m H=3.2km 6.03 Ze(worst): 6.08 dBZ (Δ: 0.7dB) Minimun Sensitivity Vs.Range 0.8dB) Ze(med):Array Antenna dBZ 60x46 Phased 3.33 64x46 Phased Array Antenna Ze(med): 2.22 dBZ Tx Pow er: 543mW/elem 432W/secPmin: -104 SNR: 0dB NF:4.5dB TxZe(med): 2.47 dBZ 0dB NF:4.5dB Pow er: 512mW/elem 432W/secPmin: -104 SNR: (Δ: 0.3dB) 3.47 0.1dB) Hight Single node t1: 4.17us BW1: 6MHz PRF1: 3.399KHz dBm PCG1:25mag t2: 41.7us BW2: 6MHz PRF2: 3.399KHz dBm PCG2:250mag H:0.05km t2: 41.7us BW2: 6MHz PRF2: 3.399KHz dBm PCG2:250mag H:3.2km t1: 4.17us BW1: 6MHz PRF1: 3.399KHz dBm PCG1:25mag t2: 41.7us BW2: 6MHz PRF2: 3.399KHz dBm PCG2:250mag H:0.05km t2: 41.7us BW2: 6MHz PRF2: 3.399KHz dBm PCG2:250mag H:3.2km 7.18dBZ, 2.81dBZ Zemax: 7.22dBZ, Ze med: 3.79dBZ Zemax: 9.37dBZ, Ze med: 3.35dBZ 9.42dBZ, 4.32dBZ B(4x90º) B(4x90º) dBZ A(3x120º) A(3x120º) dBZ No covered Area: -30 -30 ~23% 15 15 -20 -20 Cone of silence 10 10 Range in km Range in km 3 km -10 5 -10 5 2km 6% 6% 1.38km 12º 0 0 0 0 0.5km 10 -5 10 -5 N2 -10 -10 R=30 km R=30 km 20 20 -15 -15 R=6.25 km 30 30 -20 0 20 -20 0 20 Range in km Range in km Ze(worst): 7.18 dBZ (Δ: 2 dB) 7.22 1.8dB) References: [6]4.1dB) 9.37 Ze(worst): 9.42 dBZ (Δ: 4.0dB) 17 2.81 0.6dB) Ze(med): 3.79 dBZ (Δ: 0.5dB) 3.35 1.1dB) Ze(med): 4.32 dBZ (Δ: 1.0dB)

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