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Studies from Africa have shown a variable prevalence of renal disease in HIV, ranging from 6% to 45% :
(6% in SA, 38% in Nigeria, 26% in Cote d’Ivoire, 28% in Tanzania, 25% in Kenya, 20 - 48.5% in Uganda, and 33.5% in Zambia), depending on the populations studied and the criteria for diagnosis of kidney disease. Part of this wide variation may be ascribed to differences in study design, populations studied and definitions used for CKD. Recent literature recommends the CKD-EPI formula as the most reliable in calculating eGFR in this patient population.