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Physical geography of africa i


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Physical geography of africa i

  1. 1. Physical Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa Geography and Climate
  2. 2. Creation of Africa
  3. 3. Africa South of the Sahara <ul><li>The land mass is more than twice the size of the US </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of 4 sub-regions: West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, and Southern Africa </li></ul>
  4. 4. How big is it?
  5. 5. Regions of Africa
  6. 6. Landforms: Plateaus and Lowlands <ul><li>Most of Sub – Saharan Africa lies on plateaus </li></ul><ul><li>Plateaus are an area of high, flat land </li></ul><ul><li>The edges of the plateaus are marked by escarpments </li></ul><ul><li>The escarpments cause waterfalls, rapids, and prevent interior trade </li></ul><ul><li>Lowlands (plains) border the Atlantic and Indian Oceans </li></ul>
  7. 7. Landforms: Escarpments <ul><li>Africa is a large plateau with escarpments on the edges - An escarpment is similar to a cliff although not as steep. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lanforms: Mountains <ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa does not have large mountain ranges, but there are several tall mountains that are volcanoes. </li></ul><ul><li>The tallest mountain is Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania at 19,341 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>The Drakensberg Range is found in southern Africa </li></ul>
  9. 9. Landforms: The Great Rift Valley <ul><li>A rift valley is a large break in the Earth’s surface formed by sifting tectonic plates </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Rift Valley stretches from Southwest Asia to southern Africa about 4,000 miles </li></ul><ul><li>The valley’s floor lies below sea level in many areas while the walls rise 2,000 to 3,000 feet above sea level </li></ul><ul><li>The valley has rich volcanic soil good for agriculture </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Great Rift Valley
  11. 11. Waterways: Lakes <ul><li>Most of large lakes are in or near the Great Rift Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Lake Victoria is Africa’s largest lake </li></ul><ul><li>The lakes in the GRV provide freshwater and fish to near by inhabitants </li></ul>
  12. 12. Waterways: Rivers <ul><li>The some of the lakes of the GRV serve as the source of rivers </li></ul><ul><li>There 4 large river systems – the Nile, the Congo, and the Niger, and the Zambezi – all begin in the interior of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical barriers prevent these rivers from being used by all of Africa </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mineral Resources <ul><li>Oil is the principal export for many Africa countries along the Atlantic coast </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas is found along the Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>Coal deposits are located in Central Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Iron ore and chormium is found through out Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Large deposits of gold, diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires are also found in Africa </li></ul>
  14. 14. Factors Affecting Climate <ul><li>Africa lies mainly in the tropics yet high and low elevations cause varied climate zones </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tropical Wet Climate <ul><li>Found along the Equator in Central Africa and West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Rainforest are being cleared for farmers, materials, and fuel – deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent more deforestation – countries are promoting ecotourism – tourism that help preserve the environment </li></ul>
  16. 16. Tropical Dry Climate <ul><li>Rainforest give way of the savanna – grasslands with moderate rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Savanna gives way to the steppe – drier grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>Steppe gives way to the deserts </li></ul><ul><li>Deserts are very dry, barren land without trees </li></ul><ul><li>Desertification is the drying up of land along a desert </li></ul>
  17. 17. Savannah
  18. 18. Sahel A semi-arid region south of the Sahara Desert
  19. 19. Moderate Climate Regions <ul><li>Moderate temperatures are found in coastal Southern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The farther south you go the more temperate the climate </li></ul>