Photosynthesis<br />
Photosynthesis & Life<br />Occurs in the chloroplasts<br />Uses light energy to combine Water and Carbon dioxide into Star...
internal leaf structure<br />chloroplasts<br />outer membrane<br />inner membrane<br />thylakoid<br />
Chloroplasts<br />
Light, temperature and availability of raw materials all affect the rate of photosynthesis<br />Brighterlight increase the...
Adaptations to cope<br />Because of all the environmental factors that affect photosynthesis plants are able to adapt to s...
External Leaf adaptations<br />Surface area <br />Petiole and Veins<br />Cuticle<br />You fill in the blanks - <br />
Internal Leaf adaptations<br />Layers<br />Upper and Lower epidermis<br />Palisade mesophyll<br />Spongy mesophyll layer<b...
Sunlight<br />Glucose<br />O2<br />CO2<br />H2O Water Vapor<br />
Gas exchange<br />Stomata<br />During the day CO2 defuses into the cell and H2O and O2 defuse out<br />During the night an...
Plant Transport<br />
Recall<br />Transport Mechanism<br />Passive vs. Active<br />Plant Transport Tissues<br />Xylem<br />Phloem<br />
Transport Mechanisms<br />Passive transport<br />Passive Diffusion<br />Facilitated Diffusion<br />Osmosis <br />Active tr...
Plant Transport Tissues<br />Xylem<br />Vessel elements<br />Tracheids <br />Phloem<br />Sieve tube member<br />Companion ...
Problem of Terrestrial Plants<br />Ancestral plants: transport is through diffusion<br />Modern plants: transport from roo...
Transport in Plants<br />Three scales of plant transport<br />Intracellular<br />Epidermal cells<br />Short distance: cell...
4<br />3<br />2<br />1<br />      Through stomata, leaves take in CO2 and expel O2. The CO2 provides carbon for<br />photo...
Effects of Differences in Water Potential<br />To survive<br />Plants must balance water uptake and loss<br />Osmosis<br /...
Water potential<br />Is a measurement that combines the effects of solute concentration and pressure<br />Determines the d...
Plasmolyzed cell<br />at osmotic equilibrium<br />with its surroundings<br />Water potential<br />Affects uptake and loss ...
Initial flaccid cell:<br />Distilled water:<br />Turgid cell<br />at osmotic equilibrium<br />with its surroundings<br />F...
Bulk Flow in Long-Distance Transport<br />In bulk flow<br />Movement of fluid in the xylem and phloem is driven by pressur...
The xylem sap and phloem sap<br />Xylem sap<br />Root pressure<br />Transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism<br />Phloem s...
Turgor Pressure<br />This is what happens when plants don’t have enough water<br />Turgor pressure is when water presses o...
Vascular Bundles<br /><ul><li>The vascular system is made of three sections
Phloem
Xylem
Cambium</li></li></ul><li>Root pressure<br />Root tip cells have a large number of tiny extensions called root hairs  <br ...
Transpiration pull<br />More than 90% of the water moving up a plant is lost through transpiration as water vapor through ...
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Plants

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Plants

  1. 1. Photosynthesis<br />
  2. 2. Photosynthesis & Life<br />Occurs in the chloroplasts<br />Uses light energy to combine Water and Carbon dioxide into Starch and Oxygen<br />6H2O + 6CO2 + Sunlight = 6O2 + C^H12O6<br />Enzymes control the process which is a very complicated step by step process.<br />Chlorophyll is what makes the leaves greenwhich absorbs blueand redlight from the sun.<br />Total photosynthesis across the globe is about 200,000,000,000 tonnes of glucosea year this is turned into Cellulose<br />
  3. 3. internal leaf structure<br />chloroplasts<br />outer membrane<br />inner membrane<br />thylakoid<br />
  4. 4. Chloroplasts<br />
  5. 5. Light, temperature and availability of raw materials all affect the rate of photosynthesis<br />Brighterlight increase the rate of photosynthesis. Therefore the rate of photosynthesis changes throughout the day.<br />The rate of photosynthesis doubles with 10oC increase of temperature up to a temperature of 40oC.<br />Lack of water will cause plants to wilt and stopphotosynthesising.<br />The atmosphere is made of 0.03% CO2. If this changes the rate of photosynthesis also changes <br />Rate of Photosynthesis<br />
  6. 6. Adaptations to cope<br />Because of all the environmental factors that affect photosynthesis plants are able to adapt to survive these.<br />The most important of these is water<br />Mesophytic plants like roses are very adapt at dealing with water shortages.<br />
  7. 7. External Leaf adaptations<br />Surface area <br />Petiole and Veins<br />Cuticle<br />You fill in the blanks - <br />
  8. 8. Internal Leaf adaptations<br />Layers<br />Upper and Lower epidermis<br />Palisade mesophyll<br />Spongy mesophyll layer<br />Vascular bundles<br />
  9. 9. Sunlight<br />Glucose<br />O2<br />CO2<br />H2O Water Vapor<br />
  10. 10. Gas exchange<br />Stomata<br />During the day CO2 defuses into the cell and H2O and O2 defuse out<br />During the night and when respiration is happening CO2 defuses out and O2 defuses in.<br />Guard cells <br />If they absorb water they become turgid (swollen) and open the stoma.<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Plant Transport<br />
  14. 14. Recall<br />Transport Mechanism<br />Passive vs. Active<br />Plant Transport Tissues<br />Xylem<br />Phloem<br />
  15. 15. Transport Mechanisms<br />Passive transport<br />Passive Diffusion<br />Facilitated Diffusion<br />Osmosis <br />Active transport<br />Bulk transport<br />
  16. 16. Plant Transport Tissues<br />Xylem<br />Vessel elements<br />Tracheids <br />Phloem<br />Sieve tube member<br />Companion cells<br />
  17. 17. Problem of Terrestrial Plants<br />Ancestral plants: transport is through diffusion<br />Modern plants: transport from roots to shoots<br />Long distance transport<br />Figure 36.1<br />
  18. 18. Transport in Plants<br />Three scales of plant transport<br />Intracellular<br />Epidermal cells<br />Short distance: cell-to-cell<br />At the levels of tissues and organs<br />Long distance: xylem and phloem<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. 4<br />3<br />2<br />1<br /> Through stomata, leaves take in CO2 and expel O2. The CO2 provides carbon for<br />photosynthesis. Some O2produced by photosynthesis is used in cellular respiration.<br /> Sugars are produced by<br />photosynthesis in the leaves.<br />Transpiration, the loss of water<br />from leaves (mostly through<br />stomata), creates a force within<br />leaves that pulls xylem sap upward.<br />6<br />5<br />7<br /> Water and minerals are<br />transported upward from<br />roots to shoots as xylem sap.<br />Roots absorb water<br />and dissolved minerals<br />from the soil.<br /> Roots exchange gases <br />with the air spaces of soil, <br />taking in O2 and discharging <br />CO2. In cellular respiration, <br />O2 supports the breakdown <br />of sugars.<br />A variety of physical processes<br />Are involved in the different types of transport<br />CO2<br />O2<br />Light<br />H2O<br />Sugar<br /> Sugars are transported as<br />phloem sap to roots and other<br />parts of the plant.<br />O2<br />H2O<br />CO2<br />Minerals<br />Figure 36.2<br />
  21. 21. Effects of Differences in Water Potential<br />To survive<br />Plants must balance water uptake and loss<br />Osmosis<br />Determines the net uptake or water loss by a cell<br />Is affected by solute concentration and pressure<br />
  22. 22. Water potential<br />Is a measurement that combines the effects of solute concentration and pressure<br />Determines the direction of movement of water<br />Water<br />Flows from regions of high water potential to regions of low water potential<br />Both pressure and solute concentrations affect water potential<br />
  23. 23. Plasmolyzed cell<br />at osmotic equilibrium<br />with its surroundings<br />Water potential<br />Affects uptake and loss of water by plant cells<br />If a flaccid cell is placed in an environment with a higher solute concentration<br />The cell will lose water and become plasmolyzed<br />
  24. 24. Initial flaccid cell:<br />Distilled water:<br />Turgid cell<br />at osmotic equilibrium<br />with its surroundings<br />Figure 36.6b<br />If the same flaccid cell is placed in a solution with a lower solute concentration<br />The cell will gain water and become turgid<br />
  25. 25. Bulk Flow in Long-Distance Transport<br />In bulk flow<br />Movement of fluid in the xylem and phloem is driven by pressure differences at opposite ends of the xylem vessels and sieve tubes<br />
  26. 26. The xylem sap and phloem sap<br />Xylem sap<br />Root pressure<br />Transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism<br />Phloem sap<br />Pressure Flow Theory<br />Translocation <br />
  27. 27. Turgor Pressure<br />This is what happens when plants don’t have enough water<br />Turgor pressure is when water presses on the cell wall – inflating the cell<br />Soft plants have lots of soft tissue that needs a regular supply of water<br />
  28. 28. Vascular Bundles<br /><ul><li>The vascular system is made of three sections
  29. 29. Phloem
  30. 30. Xylem
  31. 31. Cambium</li></li></ul><li>Root pressure<br />Root tip cells have a large number of tiny extensions called root hairs <br />Root hairs provide a huge surface area in the soil.<br />Water enters the root via osmosis<br />?? – What happens as the water pressure builds up?<br />
  32. 32. Transpiration pull<br />More than 90% of the water moving up a plant is lost through transpiration as water vapor through the stomata.<br />As the water leaves the the plants the concentration of solutes increases within the cells, this draws more water into the cells from the xylem<br />
  33. 33. Phloem transport<br />Sugar and amino acids are transported from the leaves to pares of the plants requiring food through the phloem<br />The pressures gradient that moves this is created via the concentration of sugars<br />Dissolved food transport is called translocation<br />

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