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Ch 08 ppt_lecture


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EDU370 K-12 Health Methods, St. Andrews University

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Ch 08 ppt_lecture

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Lecture Teaching Today’s Health Tenth Edition Body Systems
  2. 2. Valued Outcomes • Describe the function and structure of skin, hair, and nails. • Explain the different roles of the brain. • Discuss the function of selected components (structures) of the nervous system. • Describe the functions of selected glands and the hormones associated with the endocrine system. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Valued Outcomes • Discuss the role of each component of the respiratory system in the breathing process. • Trace a drop of blood through the circulatory and pulmonary systems. • Describe the major function of the red blood cells. • Explain the function of white blood corpuscles in fighting off infection. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. Valued Outcomes • Describe how food travels through the body. • Describe the function of the skeletal system. • Describe how liquid and solid wastes are filtered in the body. • Differentiate between voluntary and involuntary muscles. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5. A Unique Machine • At conception, everyone has the capacity for growth, development, and functioning through genetic factors. • Environmental factors, however, determine what actually happens. • Health can only be achieved by keeping the body and its systems in good condition. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. 6. The Integumentary System • The largest human organ is the skin. • The skin protects the muscles, bones, and other body organs. • The skin also helps to regulate body temperature and contains nerve cells that enable people to feel warmth, cold, pain, touch, and other sensations. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. 7. The Integumentary System • The outermost layer of skin is the epidermis. • The middle most layer of skin is the dermis. • The innermost layer of the skin is the subcutaneous tissue. • Other components of the integumentary system include the hair and nails. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. 8. Skin and Hair © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  9. 9. The Nervous System • The nervous system controls all physiological functions and many psychological ones. • The nervous system is divided into two parts. – The central nervous system. – The peripheral nervous system. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. 10. The Central Nervous System • The central nervous system (CNS) is divided into 2 major parts: the brain and the spinal cord. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  11. 11. The Brain • The brain is composed of 4 parts: – Cerebrum – Cerebellum – Diencephalon – Brainstem © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  12. 12. Parts of the Brain • Cerebrum – Largest part of the brain; governs intelligence and reasoning, learning, and memory • Cerebellum – Needed for muscle coordination and maintains muscle tone, posture, and balance © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  13. 13. Parts of the Brain • Brainstem (medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain) – Closest to the spinal cord and helps regulate heartbeat, breathing, vasoconstriction (blood pressure), and reflex centers (vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing, hiccuppin g) • Diencephalon – Includes the hypothalamus and thalamus. The hypothalamus regulates homeostasis (thirst, hunger, body temperature, water balance and blood pressure). The thalamus serves as a central relay point for incoming nerve messages. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  14. 14. The Cerebrum and Lobes of the Brain • The cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain and is divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres. • The central hemispheres are covered by a thin layer of gray matter known as the cerebral cortex. • The surface of the cerebral cortex is covered with bumps or bulges, called gyri and grooves called sulci. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  15. 15. The Cerebrum and Lobes of the Brain • The occipital lobe (back of head) receives and processes information. • The temporal lobe receives auditory signals and processes language and meaning of words. • The parietal lobe processes information about the senses (touch, taste, pressure, pain, heat, and cold). • The frontal lobe conducts 3 functions: motor activity, speech, and thought processes. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. 16. The Control Centers and Lobes of the Brain © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  17. 17. Indelible Learning • "Active learning" helps students retain what they have learned. • Active learning builds patterns and programs in the brain to provide feedback loops. • Three criteria must be met to help promote knowledge retention: 1. The learning is meaningful to the student 2. The student experiences strong emotions about the learning. 3. The student applies the lesson within 24 hours. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  18. 18. The Diencephalon • Contains the thalamus and hypothalamus – Thalamus acts as switching center for nerve passages. – Hypothalamus is major homeostatic center with nervous and endocrine functions. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  19. 19. The Cerebellum • The 'little brain' located behind the brain stem. • Control fine motor coordination, body movement, posture, and balance. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  20. 20. The Brain Stem • Area of the brain between the thalamus and spinal cord. • Includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. • Smallest, most primitive part of the brain, it controls most basic body functions. – Heart rate – Blood pressure – Digestion – Respiration © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  21. 21. The Spinal Cord • Links the brain to the rest of the body. • Main pathway for information connecting the brain and peripheral nervous system. • Protected by the bony spinal column, which consists of bones called vertebrae. • The spinal cord is located within the vertebral foramen (central holes in the vertebrae). • Contains ascending and descending bundles of neurons. • Also control reflexes that do not involve the brain. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  22. 22. How Parts of the Brain Work Together • Cerebral cortex helps with cognitive functions like speech and decision making. • Cerebellum coordinates muscles and joints to act on thoughts. • Brain stem sends information to brain and spinal cord to control changes as a result of behavior. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  23. 23. The Peripheral Nervous System • Connects the central nervous system with sensory receptors, organs, muscles, and glands. • Made up of two components: somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. – Somatic system controls skeletal muscles and voluntary movements – Autonomic system regulates smooth muscles • Sympathetic division activates 'fight-or-flight' response. • Parasympathetic division restores resting state. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  24. 24. The Endocrine System • The endocrine system regulates the body with the production of hormones. • The two "controller" glands of the endocrine system are the hypothalamus and the pituitary, which are both located in the brain. • The hypothalamus controls body temperature and also controls the pituitary gland. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  25. 25. The Endocrine System • The pituitary gland is responsible for influencing: reproductive glands, human growth and development, water balance and blood pressure, and skin pigmentation. – Anterior pituitary lobe ("the master gland") secretes 6 major hormones controlling reproduction, growth and development. – Posterior pituitary lobe stores and releases hormones into blood. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  26. 26. Major Structures of the Endocrine System © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  27. 27. The Thyroid Gland • Located in the neck. • Thyroid hormone increases the overall metabolic rate and regulates growth and development, including the onset of sexual maturity. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  28. 28. The Adrenal Glands • Located above the kidneys. • Each gland is divided into an inner medulla and an outer cortex. • The medulla secretes amine hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) to initiate the "fight or flight" response. • The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones that maintain electrolyte balance, regulate blood sugar, suppress the immune response, and inhibit the inflammatory response. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  29. 29. The Pancreas • The pancreas secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood glucose levels. • After eating, blood glucose levels rise, stimulating the release of insulin. • When insulin is released, cells absorb glucose; and liver and skeletal muscle cells form the carbohydrate glycogen. • Glucagon breaks down glycogen into glucose, which is then released into the blood to maintain glucose levels in a balanced range. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  30. 30. The Respiratory System • Air enters the body through the nose, and then it is warmed, filtered, and passed through the nasal cavity. • Air then passes the pharynx and larynx, then moves into the bronchi that carry air in and out of the lungs. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  31. 31. The Respiratory System © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  32. 32. Ventilation • Ventilation is the process of breathing in and out. • When one inhales, muscles in the chest wall contract, lifting the ribs and pulling them outward. • The diaphragm moves downward, enlarging the chest cavity. • Reduced air pressure in the lungs causes air to enter the lungs. • Exhaling reverses these steps. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  33. 33. The Circulatory System • The Heart – The heart is a 2-sided, 4-chambered muscle that contracts in a rhythmic pattern to pump blood. – Blood flows through the heart from veins to atria to ventricles and then out by arteries. – One heartbeat, or cardiac cycle, includes atrial contraction and relaxation, ventricular contraction and relaxation, and a short pause. – Normal cardiac cycles at rest last 0.8 seconds. – Systole is heart muscle contraction; Diastole is the relaxation phase. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  34. 34. The Circulatory System • Flow of blood through the heart – Blood from the body flows through the vena cava, which empties into the right atrium. – At the same time, oxygenated blood from the lungs flows from the pulmonary vein into the left atrium. – The muscles of each atria contract, forcing blood downward through each AV valve into each ventricle. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  35. 35. The Circulatory System © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  36. 36. Steps for a Healthy Heart • Learn the risk factors for heart disease and the symptoms of a heart attack. • Eat heart-healthy foods. • Be physically active on most days of the week. • Stop smoking. • Have your weight and waist measured. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  37. 37. The Circulatory System • Blood – Plasma is the liquid component of blood that contains nutrients, wastes, salts, and proteins. – Red blood cells (erythrocytes) carry oxygen in the cell's hemoglobin. – Red blood cells comprise approximately 1/3 of all the body's cells and are continuously manufactured in the marrow of bones, ribs, skull, and vertebrae. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  38. 38. The Circulatory System • Blood – White blood cells (leukocytes) lack hemoglobin and function in the cellular immune response. – White blood cells comprise less than 1 percent of the blood's volume, and are made from stem cells in bone marrow. – Red blood cells (erythrocytes) contain hemoglobin and carry oxygen. – About 1/3 of all cells in the body are erythrocytes (25,000,000,000 cells). © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  39. 39. The Circulatory System • Blood – Platelets result from cell fragmentation and are involved in blood clotting. – Platelets stick and adhere to tears in blood vessels. – A hemophiliac's blood cannot clot, so providing correct proteins (clotting factors) has been a common treatment for hemophiliacs. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  40. 40. What is High Blood Pressure • Abnormal condition where force of blood against sides of arteries is consistently high. • Systolic (higher number) pressure when the heart is beating. • Diastolic (lower number) pressure between beats is the resting phase. • Normal blood pressure is less than 120/80. • High is 140/90 or higher. • High blood pressure can lead to stroke, heart attack, heart failure , and kidney failure. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  41. 41. The Lymphatic System • The lymphatic system is a secondary circulatory system that carries fluid called lymph. • Lymph nodes are small, irregularly shaped masses through which lymph vessels flow. • Clusters of lymph nodes occur in the armpits, groin, and neck. • Cells of the immune system line the nodes and attack bacteria and viruses traveling in the lymph. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  42. 42. The Digestive and Excretory Systems • The digestive system contains organs that chemically alter food for absorption by body tissues. • It also is responsible for processing food, using specific enzymes to break food down into usable components (protein, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, and other substances). © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  43. 43. The Digestive System © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  44. 44. The Digestive and Excretory Systems • Digestion begins in the mouth, moving down through the esophagus and into the stomach. • The stomach gradually releases food material into the upper small intestine, where digestion is completed. • After solid food has been digested, the remaining fluid—chyme—is digested and passes into the small intestine. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  45. 45. The Digestive and Excretory Systems • In the small intestine, nutrients are absorbed from the chyme into the bloodstream, leaving the unusable residue and some water. • The residue passes through the colon (large intestine) to the rectum, excess water is absorbed back to the body. • The remaining solid waste, called feces, passes out of the body through the anal canal and the anus. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  46. 46. The Excretory System • The Kidneys – The kidneys' major function is to regulate the water content, mineral composition, and acidity of the body. – They excrete each substance in an amount adequate to achieve balance and maintain normal concentrations in the extracellular fluid. – The kidneys also are responsible for removing metabolic wastes from the blood and excreting them in urine. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  47. 47. The Excretory System © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  48. 48. How to Care for the Digestive System • Eat the proper foods in appropriate quantities. • Exercise. • Consult your health care provider if you consistently have an upset stomach, heartburn, or constipation. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  49. 49. The Skeletal and Muscular Systems • The skeletal-muscular system gives shape to the body and provides support, protection, and mobility. • More than 200 bones comprise the human skeleton. • The long bones of the body contain red marrow essential for manufacturing red blood cells. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  50. 50. The Skeletal and Muscular Systems • In infancy, bones are flexible and soft. • Throughout the developmental process, the ingestion of calcium, phosphorous and vitamin D, help bones become more rigid and grow thicker and longer. • The upright walking posture of the human body relies on the strong vertebral column and pelvis for support. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  51. 51. The Skeletal System © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  52. 52. The Skeletal and Muscular Systems • The place where bones meet are called joints. • There are three broad structural categories of joints: – Synovial Joints—fluid-filled cavity and are the most flexible type of joint. – Cartilaginous Joints—articulating surfaces that are covered with cartilage and permit a moderate amount of flexibility. – Fibrous Joints—provide the least flexibility because the joints are joined together with fibrous tissue. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  53. 53. The Vertebral Column • 33 vertebrae (spinal column and backbone) that extend from the base of the head to the hip region. • Allows bending, twisting, and turning motions of the upper body. • Divided into: – 7 Cervical vertebrae. – 12 Thoracic vertebrae. – 5 Lumbar vertebrae. – 5 fused Sacral vertebrae. – Coccyx (tailbone) © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  54. 54. The Skull • The human skull includes the cranium and the bones of the face. • The cranium is a group of 16 large, flat, hard bones that form a domelike structure that surrounds and protects the brain. • The facial bones provide protection for the eyes, nasal passages, and the cheeks. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  55. 55. The Sternum and Rib Cage • The sternum is a flat, elongated, thick and rigid bone that protects the heart. • The rib cage attaches to the sternum (front) and thoracic vertebrae (back) and protects the lungs. • 10 pairs of attached ribs and 2 pairs of unattached, floating ribs. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  56. 56. The Pelvis • The bowl-shaped pelvis is formed by connections of the sacral and coccyx vertebrae of the back with the hipbones in the side and front portions of the body. • The pelvis helps protect organs of the reproductive and excretory systems. • The pelvis also supports the upper part of the body and aids in twisting, turning, and sitting. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  57. 57. Bones of the Legs and Feet • Femur—extends from each side of the hip and is the upper leg bone. It is the largest bone in the body. • Patella—protects the knee. • Tibia—(shin) is attached to the femur at the knee. • Fibula—is part of the lower leg. • Tarsals—place where the bones of the tibia and fibula are joined to the bones of the feet and ankle. • Phalanges—the 14 bones of the toes. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  58. 58. Bones of the Arms and Hands • • • • • Scapula—triangular shoulder blade Humerus—upper arm bone Clavicle—collarbone Ulna—the longer bone of the lower arm Radius—shorter lower arm bone on the thumb side • Carpal Bones—wrist bones • Metacarpals—palm of the hand • Phalanges—bones of the fingers © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  59. 59. The Muscles • The human body contains over 650 muscles attached to the skeleton. • The main job of the muscular system is to provide movement for the body. • The muscular system consists of three different types of tissue: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. • Muscles are either voluntary or involuntary (e.g., cardiac muscle). © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  60. 60. The Muscular System © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  61. 61. Types of Muscle Tissue • Skeletal muscle – Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of adult body weight. – The nervous system controls the contractions. – Many of the contractions are automatic, but we still can control the action of skeletal muscle (voluntary muscle). © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  62. 62. Types of Muscle Tissue • Cardiac muscle – Cardiac muscle makes up the wall of the heart (myocardium) and is involuntary. – It is attached to other cardiac muscle rather than to bone. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  63. 63. Types of Muscle Tissue • Smooth muscle – Much of our internal organs are comprised of smooth muscles. – The nervous system and hormones control smooth muscles. – We cannot consciously control this type of muscle (involuntary muscle). © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  64. 64. Care for the Skeletal and Muscular System • • • • • Maintain a healthy body weight. Engage in regular physical activity. Don't smoke. Protect yourself from injury. See your health care provider regularly. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.