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PWV and PE Regions


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Grade 12 Economic Geography. SA curriculum. PWV and PE-Uitenhage Regions.

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PWV and PE Regions

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  2. 2. MANUFACTURING REGIONS REGION FAVOURABLE FACTORS LIMITATIONS MAIN INDUSTRIES PWV Complex DurbanPinetown South-western Cape Port ElizabethUitenhage Problem: Development only in these four regions, the rest of the country under developed. Post 1994 government developed a programme to promote development across the country
  3. 3. Gauteng Facts •30% of SA population •370 people/km2 •97% urbanised – not necessarily civilized? •70%of SA’s labour force •22% contribution to mining sector •38% of SA’s GDP •1,4% of SA’s area
  4. 4. OVER CENTRALIZATION ISSUES (AGGLOMERATION)  Congestion  Pollution – air, noise, land  Insufficient housing  Infrastructure becomes over used – power cuts  Insufficient jobs-no money, squatter camps and crime MINING’S CONTRIBUTION TO JHB  JHB 1886  Brought people – towns established  Supporting industries e.g. explosives, wood, clothing etc.  Road and rail network  Other infrastructural development – electricity, hospitals and schools, water
  5. 5. MINING AND JHB TODAY  Many gold mines exhausted and closed  Mines on edge of golden circle still successful  Secondary industries are well entrenched  Tertiary activities dominate e.g. business tourism, banking and selling MAJOR INDUSTRIES Major Industries  ESKOM  AECI  AFROX  ISCOR  SASOL  Food and beverages  Motor vehicles – market and steel Major Services  Stock exchange  Banking  IT
  6. 6. FACTORS FAVOURING INDUSTRY IN GAUTENG  Central position in SA  Flat land  Gold mining attracted skilled labour  Water – TVTS, LHWP  Electricity from Mpumalanga  Better salaries  Excellent infrastructur  Raw materials close by; platinum, gold, maize, coal and iron  Transport links well established  Large local market – rural and African migration  Many technikons/uni’s/colleges to impart skills  Close to Harbour’s – Richards Bay, Durban and Maputo
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  10. 10. EASTERN CAPE ADVANTAGES  Central position to Durban and Cape Town  Much labour available  Foreign investment in motor industry (VW stared in Uitenhage in 1926 - GM pulled out in 1980’s, now improved)  Coega is meant to stimulate economy  Wild coast, Addo Elephant Park – eco-tourism EASTERN CAPE DISADVANTAGES  Underdeveloped because of previous homelands, Ciskei and Transkei – poor services, infrastructure (few access roads, no piped water, few schools)  Poor environment – many subsistence farmers, overgrazed, trees cut for firewood and footpaths cause erosion  Overcrowding, overgrazing and soil erosion  Limited job opportunities  Labour costs too high – Asia and E. Europe car manufacturing  Strikes / labour unrest
  12. 12. COEGA PROMISES  Deep water port  Attract foreign companies  Plenty of space to expand  Regular water supply from Orange-Fish Tunnel  Government backed project  New jobs  New improved infrastructure  Foreign investment  New skills learnt  Increased tourism COEGA ISSUES  Long distance to main market of Gauteng, when Richards Bay and Maputo are available  E. Cape cannot support this venture financially. Foreign investments promised but not delivered and rand has devalued.  White Elephant?  Pollution