The Benefits of Better Ventilation
and Filtration Practices in Schools
Gerald (Jerry) Lamping
ASHRAE Member
Director for I...
What is a Green School ?
Green Schools National Network
A Green School enhances student health and learning while
conservi...
Costs for Student Absences
12% of U.S. School Children
are chronically absent and
miss 1 out of every 10 school days*
One ...
High Performance & Healthy Classroom
From the 1950’
s
Unhealthy Classroom of the
2000’
s
Classroom of the Future?

http://www.carpediemaz.com/learning-centers/
ASHRAE President
2013-14
Presidential theme
Shaping the Next
focuses on creating positive change for
our world, ourselves,...
Shaping the Next
Indoor Air Quality
Fundamentals
“the most important aspect of what I consider
to be our fundamental oblig...
ASHRAE: Shaping the Next
Indoor Air Quality Goal
“Perhaps most importantly,
a critical shift in thinking is from
a goal of...
Shaping the Next
Indoor Air Quality, FAC
Filtration and Air Cleaning (FAC) Comments
BY H.E. BARNEY BURROUGHS, PRESIDENTIAL...
USGBC: LEED Future Criterion
“
The focus of LEED has been improving energy
and water use, but in the next few years,
the e...
USGBC:N. California Chapter
On October 30, 2013, USGBC-NCC launched the

Building Health Initiative that
will feature a di...
Society of Indoor Air Quality:
Protect Against Outdoor Pollutants
William W Nazaroff, Ph.D. of UC Berkeley states that the...
EPA’ Health Effects Pyramid
s
The 3 I’ of
s
Indoor Environmental Quality for
Commercial/Instructional Facilities
The 3 I’ of IEQ
s
can affect health
and attendance
1.
Invisible Particles
Aerosols Levels in the classroom
Airborne partic...
Sources of the 3 I’
s
• Outside Air for Ventilation
•
•
•

EPA NAAQS Pollutants
Toxic Gases
Airborne Microbes

• Occupants...
Assessing the Indoor Environment
Invisible Particles
Invisible particles
Invisible Particles In Dust
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Animal dander
Household dust
Insect parts
Pollen
Pesticides
Combustion by-produ...
Invisible Particle Health Effects

Source: Pope and Dockery, 2006
http://www.noaca.org/pmhealtheffects.pdf
Health Effects Of Sub Micron
Sized Particulate Matter (PM)
•Pulmonary inflammation initiating a
systemic response;
•Transl...
Indoor Air Quality Standards
Air Quality Standards are applied
•
Outdoor Air,

EPA NAAQS at www.airnow.gov

• Plane Cabins...
Clean Air Room PM Standard
ISO 14644-1

Medicines
Semiconductors
Medical Devices
Meat Processing

Computers
Classrooms
Ent...
EPA PM Standard
For long-term effects of fine PM (PM2.5 ), EPA’ Clean Air Scientific Advisory
s
Committee (CASAC) recommen...
USA Filtration Practice
ASHRAE 62.1-2013
MERV 8 before coil

USGBC LEED V4
MERV 11 Normal
MERV 13 Enhanced

CHPS Core Crit...
European Union Filtration Law
Actual Air Particle Reduction
Methods
Improve Air Filtration
ASHRAE Filter Rating of
MERV 8 to MERV 13 and
Gas Phase Filtr...
Portable Hand Held Particle
Counter

Six Channels of Particle Sizes from .3 to 10 Micrometers in diameter
Particles In Classrooms

Particles in the classroom
1,663,402

Part./Cu Ft

10,000,000

Before
Cleaning

1,000,000
187,836...
Actual Experience Shows Benefits
of IAQ Intervention Program in
Schools
Comparison of Inhalers/Nebulizers

“In North East ...
Actual Experience Shows Benefits of
Air Cleaning in Schools
• Teachers report less problems with sore and
scratchy throats...
Schools Located Near Major
Highway (Concerns)
Near-roadway Health Concerns
• Over the last decade, hundreds of studies pub...
School Location Near Major
Highway
One recent research study
revealed a significant 24%
increase in the risk of
experienci...
Schools Located Near Major
Highway (Keck School of Med.)
Childhood Incident Asthma and Traffic-Related Air Pollution
at Ho...
Schools Located Near Major
Highway (San Antonio)
Assessing the Indoor Environment
Irritant Gases

Irritant Gases
Outside Air Contaminants
Ozone; Hot & Sunny Days
Water Vapor in Hot and
Humid Climates
Other Gases; Sewer, Boiler
Gas, Ind...
Sources of Irritant Gases
CLEAN AIR ROOMS
Allergy Friendly Rooms
Scented Products Use Rules
Many chemicals contained in sc...
Sources of Irritant Gases
Entrainment of Irritant Gases

Sewer vent gases and boiler combustion vent
gases are entrained w...
InfiltrationOpen Building Penetrations
Infiltration From From Unsealed
PenetrationsThe FourthSource of Outside
are a I of ...
Research Shows the Test Score
Effects of Irritant Gases
For every unit (1 l/s per person)
increase in the ventilation rate...
Research Shows the Absenteeism
Effects of Irritant Gases
1 l/s plus reduces
.
absences by 1.6%
3.4% fewer
student absences...
Research Shows the Health
Effects of Irritant Gases
The research study data available suggests that
• indicators of inflam...
Actual Experience Shows Health
Benefits of Ventilation in Schools
PRN Inhaler Use since School Opening
School A
94

100
60...
Actual Experience Shows Test Score
Benefits of Ventilation in Schools
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50

School B
School A...
Ventilation Air Energy Penalty
• Fan energy is required
to force outside air into
the school building
• Fan energy is requ...
Benefits of IAQ Procedure
Gas Phase Filtration Media
• Media is a combination of
activated carbon, and an activated
alumina substrate impregnated
wi...
Polarized Media Filtration Devices
Electrostatic attraction & Agglomeration
Ability to collect particles < 0.3 Microns

Lo...
Pressure Drop vs Dust Load

Polarized Media
Air
Filtration
Devices
ASHRAE 52.2 Test Results
Cost Benefit from Extended
Filter Service and Power Use
Asthma Risk and VOC Level

For every 10 unit increase in the concentration of
toluene and benzene (µg/m3) the risk of havi...
Total Volatile Organic Compounds
and TVOC Meter Technology
• Volatile Organic Compounds = VOCs
= Odors & Irritants &Toxici...
Actual Experience Shows Benefits
of Reducing VOC’
s
• North East ISD reported a savings of 30% in
Custodial costs and a re...
Assessing the Indoor Environment
Infectious Microbes

Infectious Microbes
Beneficial Microbes
• Human Microbiome Project
– 1000 species of bacteria on human
skin
Source: Julia Segre, et al
Nationa...
Infectious Microbes
Viruses, bacteria, amoebae, fungi,
and other microbial parasites
can invade the human body
– 100 Trill...
Actual Experience Shows
Health Benefits of Hygiene in
Schools
Good hand and
surface hygiene can
reduce illness and
school ...
Research Shows the
Effects of Infectious Microbes
• Research evidence suggests that a large portion
of enteric and respira...
Clean Classroom Hygiene Standard &
ATP Meter Technology
ISSA K-12 Classroom Clean Standard Elements:
(a) basic or prelimin...
Microbiome of Humans
One person sheds each hour
2,400,000 skin cells
(Motionless, up to 500,000 particles per minute.
When...
Microbiome of Humans and Buildings
? microbiome

is the totality of microbes,
their genetic elements (genomes), and
enviro...
Tracking Flu Activity

Peak of Seasonal
Flu

Year 2010-2011 is shown in pink and peaked at 10 % of visits due to Influenza...
Actual Experience with Seasonal
Flu
ADA Rates for each 6 Week Periods of 10-11
Attendance, %

School A

98.5
98
97.5
97
96...
Reduced Risk of Flu Infection

Source: Parham Azimi and Brent Stephens, Ph.D., the Department of Civil, Architectural and ...
Engineering Controls to Reduce
Infectious Microbe Transmission.
S tr tegi f Cl sr
a es or asoom s
Diuti Ventia on
l on
l t...
Built Environment Microbiome
Project

http://biology.uoregon.edu/biobe/
The BioBE Center is based at the University of Ore...
Jessica Green on Building Microbes
“Architectural design
influences the diversity
and structure of the
built environment
M...
Latest Estimates on Better IEQ Benefits
• Fisk and Brunner IEQ in Office Study *
The estimated benefits of the IEQ scenari...
ASHRAE IAQ Guide (Free)
American Institute of Architects,
U.S. Green Building Council,
Builders and Owners Management
Asso...
EPA References for Improved
Academic Performance, Student
Health, and Teacher Retention

Test scores uniformly increase as...
We Learn Here
and
Where We Learn Matters

http://vimeo.com/46229583
EPA Guidelines for School Siting
and Environmental Health Programs
EPA’ voluntary School Siting Guidelines encourage
s
con...
Center for Green Schools
USGBC
Local Leaders in Sustainability: Special Report from Sundance,
A National Action Plan for G...
Additional References on Impacts
of Indoor Environments on Human
Performance and Productivity

Scientific Findings Resourc...
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The benefits of ventilation and filtration in schools

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School indoor environments can be improved with better ventilation and filtration practices that can also reduce Operational and Maintenance costs

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The benefits of ventilation and filtration in schools

  1. 1. The Benefits of Better Ventilation and Filtration Practices in Schools Gerald (Jerry) Lamping ASHRAE Member Director for IAQ (Retired) Green Classroom Professional USGBC December 17, 2013
  2. 2. What is a Green School ? Green Schools National Network A Green School enhances student health and learning while conserving natural resources and empowering students to develop sustainable behaviors, enabling them to become the stewards of the future. The Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) We want all schools to be: Healthy, Comfortable, Energy Efficient, Material Efficient, Easy to Maintain and Operate, Commissioned, Environmentally Responsive Site, A Building That Teaches, Safe and Secure, Community Resource, Stimulating Architecture, and Adaptable to Changing Needs. The U.S. Green Building Council Green schools are healthier for students and teachers, better for the environment, and cost less to operate and maintain. The Environmental Protection Agency (Tools for Schools) Green schools promote a healthy learning environment to reduce absenteeism, improve test scores and enhance student and staff productivity. U.S. Department of Education's Green Ribbon Schools Green schools can help children build real-world skill sets, cut school costs and provide healthy learning environments.
  3. 3. Costs for Student Absences 12% of U.S. School Children are chronically absent and miss 1 out of every 10 school days* One missed student day costs local school district in state aid ?$32 State wide ADA in 2009-2010 95.5% Keller ISD ADA 97.0% Boerne ISD ADA 96.0% North East ISD ADA 96.1% * TIME Magazine September 17, 2012 issue
  4. 4. High Performance & Healthy Classroom From the 1950’ s
  5. 5. Unhealthy Classroom of the 2000’ s
  6. 6. Classroom of the Future? http://www.carpediemaz.com/learning-centers/
  7. 7. ASHRAE President 2013-14 Presidential theme Shaping the Next focuses on creating positive change for our world, ourselves, and our work by setting goals, making realistic plans to achieve them, and having the commitment to follow them. WILLIAM P. BAHNFLETH, PH.D., P.E ASHRAE Journal, vol. 55, no. 8, August 2013
  8. 8. Shaping the Next Indoor Air Quality Fundamentals “the most important aspect of what I consider to be our fundamental obligation to strive to provide indoor environments that are safe, healthy, productive, and comfortable while conserving resources and the environment.” ASHRAE Journal, vol. 55, no. 8, August 2013
  9. 9. ASHRAE: Shaping the Next Indoor Air Quality Goal “Perhaps most importantly, a critical shift in thinking is from a goal of indoor environments that are acceptable to the occupants to that are truly healthy and productive.” WILLIAM P. BAHNFLETH, PH.D., P.E., 2013 ASHRAE President
  10. 10. Shaping the Next Indoor Air Quality, FAC Filtration and Air Cleaning (FAC) Comments BY H.E. BARNEY BURROUGHS, PRESIDENTIAL MEMBER/FELLOW ASHRAE, “The focus on the indoor environment and related human health effects include Respirable Particulates, VOCs (volatile organic compounds) and “Toxic” Mold.” “FAC is a mature 70+ year old technology from the prior century, but the technology has unique and established advantages and has proven potential to offer as the HVAC industry faces the challenges of the second decade of the 21st century.”
  11. 11. USGBC: LEED Future Criterion “ The focus of LEED has been improving energy and water use, but in the next few years, the emphasis likely will shift to the ways that well-designed buildings can benefit people's health through better air quality… ” ELIZABETH HEIDER, 2012 Chair of the USGBC Board of Directors
  12. 12. USGBC:N. California Chapter On October 30, 2013, USGBC-NCC launched the Building Health Initiative that will feature a diverse array of actions, will facilitate sharing of best practices and will foster collaboration among a unique coalition of commercial building owners and tenants; architects, engineers and builders; building product manufacturers; legal professionals; labor and healthcare professionals and institutions. “ This is the first time major corporations and institutions from multiple sectors have come together to publicly commit to improving human health through green building,” Dan Geiger, Executive Director of USGBC-NCC
  13. 13. Society of Indoor Air Quality: Protect Against Outdoor Pollutants William W Nazaroff, Ph.D. of UC Berkeley states that the two pollutant classes of greatest health significance coming into the indoor air from the outdoor air are fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone. There are mature air filtering and air cleaning technologies available for removing both pollutant classes from air streams. Indoor Air 2013 vol. 23 William J. Fisk of LBNL concludes that ‘ largest potential benefits of indoor the particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air’ Indoor Air 2013 Vol. 23 . Charles J. Weschler, Ph.D. of EOSHI notes that a substantial proportion (25–60%) of daily ozone intake occurs indoors and that activated carbon or chemically impregnated filters could be used to control ozone in mechanically ventilated buildings. Environ. Health Perspectives Vol. 114 2006
  14. 14. EPA’ Health Effects Pyramid s
  15. 15. The 3 I’ of s Indoor Environmental Quality for Commercial/Instructional Facilities
  16. 16. The 3 I’ of IEQ s can affect health and attendance 1. Invisible Particles Aerosols Levels in the classroom Airborne particles have the potential to cause allergic reactions, skin irritation, coughing, sneezing, respiratory difficulties and circulatory system problems. 2. Irritant Gases Ventilation Practices for the classroom Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), formaldehyde, body odors, and biological contaminants are causes for occupant discomfort and poor health outcomes. 3. Infectious Microbes Cold/Flu Virus Transmission Paths in the classroom Bacterial and Viral respiratory tract infections, particularly of rhinoviruses, are associated with the majority of asthma exacerbations in both children and adults. Invisible particles + Irritants + Infections = Inflammation process
  17. 17. Sources of the 3 I’ s • Outside Air for Ventilation • • • EPA NAAQS Pollutants Toxic Gases Airborne Microbes • Occupants • • • • Particles Ammonia/Acetone Hydrogen Sulfide Infectious Microbes • Building Materials & Processes • • • Formaldehyde Total Volatile Organic Compounds Asbestos and Lead Dust • Infiltration from open penetrations • • • • Atmosphere Dust Combustion Gases Airborne Microbes Animal borne Microbes
  18. 18. Assessing the Indoor Environment Invisible Particles Invisible particles
  19. 19. Invisible Particles In Dust • • • • • • • Animal dander Household dust Insect parts Pollen Pesticides Combustion by-products Microbes • Common Reservoirs: – Carpets, pillows, couches, stuffed animals
  20. 20. Invisible Particle Health Effects Source: Pope and Dockery, 2006 http://www.noaca.org/pmhealtheffects.pdf
  21. 21. Health Effects Of Sub Micron Sized Particulate Matter (PM) •Pulmonary inflammation initiating a systemic response; •Translocation of UFPM into the blood circulation, leading to interaction with endothelium and white blood cells; •Distribution to extra pulmonary organs (e.g., liver, heart) thereby inducing vascular effects and cardiac events; •Translocation of UFPM along sensory neuronal pathways to the CNS causing inflammation, and activation of irritant receptors in the conducting airways affecting input to the automonic nervous system. Source: Assessment of Ambient UFP Health Effects:Linking Sources to Exposure and Responses in Extrapulmonary Organs : 2010 Grant EPA R827354, Günter Oberdörster et al, University of Rochester; EPA PM Research Center
  22. 22. Indoor Air Quality Standards Air Quality Standards are applied • Outdoor Air, EPA NAAQS at www.airnow.gov • Plane Cabins, Air ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 161-2007, Air Quality within Commercial Aircraft • Computer and electronics facilities, ISO 14644 Parts 1 and 2 • Nuclear facilities, No. NS-G-2.2 Operational Limits and Conditions and Operating Procedures for NPPs • Pharmaceutical facilities ISO 8573-1:2010 Compressed Air Contaminants and Purity Classes • Commercial/Instructional facilities CO2 level 700 ppm above BG
  23. 23. Clean Air Room PM Standard ISO 14644-1 Medicines Semiconductors Medical Devices Meat Processing Computers Classrooms Entry Rooms Data Centers Outside Air Cleanrooms are required for manufacturing of electronics, drugs, food and beverage plants Need a Clean Air Room Standard for Classrooms at Class 6
  24. 24. EPA PM Standard For long-term effects of fine PM (PM2.5 ), EPA’ Clean Air Scientific Advisory s Committee (CASAC) recommended the primary health standard be tightened from an annual average of 15 µg/m3 to somewhere in the range of 11–13 µg/m3. The EPA’ new standard 12 µg/m3 annual mean s With an annual standard of 12 µg/m3 , the EPA estimates the annual health benefits are $2.3–5.9 billion, with costs of $69 million. About 30% of the U.S. population lives in the 191 counties or parts of counties designated as “nonattainment” for the current annual PM2.5 standard. Weinhold B 2012. EPA Proposes Tighter Particulate Air Pollution Standards. Environ Health Perspect 120:a348-a349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.120-a348a http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.120-a348a#r3 http://www.catf.us/resources/publications/files/SickOfSoot.pdf
  25. 25. USA Filtration Practice ASHRAE 62.1-2013 MERV 8 before coil USGBC LEED V4 MERV 11 Normal MERV 13 Enhanced CHPS Core Criterion MERV 11 Normal MERV 13 Enhanced
  26. 26. European Union Filtration Law
  27. 27. Actual Air Particle Reduction Methods Improve Air Filtration ASHRAE Filter Rating of MERV 8 to MERV 13 and Gas Phase Filtration Polarized Media Devices Reduce Classroom Clutter and Furnishings Airborne Particle Counts
  28. 28. Portable Hand Held Particle Counter Six Channels of Particle Sizes from .3 to 10 Micrometers in diameter
  29. 29. Particles In Classrooms Particles in the classroom 1,663,402 Part./Cu Ft 10,000,000 Before Cleaning 1,000,000 187,836 260,521 203,028 120,352 100,000 169,339 9,779 10,000 5,127 2,895 7,396 6,512 1,000 3,367 100 After 13,735 2,118 663 670 181 167 Cleaning 10 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 Particle Size, Micromenter Ten fold decease in Fine Particles after Cleaning in Room 9.0
  30. 30. Actual Experience Shows Benefits of IAQ Intervention Program in Schools Comparison of Inhalers/Nebulizers “In North East ISD of nearly 70,000 schoolchildren, there were an extraordinary 9,000 trips to school nurses during the first six weeks of classes before the environmental intervention program began. The next year, school nurse visits dropped like a rock to half as many during the same period” Diane Rhodes, Asthma Educator Allergy & Asthma Today vol 9 no 3, 2011 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Inhalers 2006-2007 Inhalers 2007-2008 Nebulizers 2006-2007 Nebulizers 2007-2008 Aug/sept Results of student Inhaler /Nebulizer Usage after initiating ‘ Tips for a Healthy Classroom’and ‘ Asthma Trigger Education’ began being communicated to staff. Data comes from the time period of first six weeks of school which is when ‘ most problematic’allergy seasons are dormant. from North East ISD Department of Environmental Health “A significant increase in hospital admissions for asthma (20% to 300%) was associated with school return after each break. The strongest associations were observed following summer vacation and for children age 5 to 11 years.” by Shao Lin, Rena Jones, Xiu Liu, Syni-An Hwang, Impact of the Return to School on Childhood Asthma Burden in New York State International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol 17, No 1 (2011)
  31. 31. Actual Experience Shows Benefits of Air Cleaning in Schools • Teachers report less problems with sore and scratchy throats, runny eyes, and loss of voice during the school day • Students report less symptoms of respiratory illness and asthmatic experience less breathing problems requiring use of reliever medication http://www.neisd.net/athletics/PE/documents/DetectingAerosolsPPP.pdf
  32. 32. Schools Located Near Major Highway (Concerns) Near-roadway Health Concerns • Over the last decade, hundreds of studies published on the health of populations living near major roads – – – – – – – Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children New onset asthma Cardiovascular disease Premature mortality Neurodevelopmental delays Birth outcomes Cancer • In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended siting schools and child care facilities away from high-traffic roadways • This year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed a new national public health objective for “ Healthy Pe ople 2020” – Decrease the number of new schools sited within 500 feet of a freeway or other busy traffic corridors Source: Traffic -Related Air Pollution: A Critical Review of the Literature on E missions, Exposure, and Health Effects, Special Report 17 Health Effects Institute Boston, Massachusetts
  33. 33. School Location Near Major Highway One recent research study revealed a significant 24% increase in the risk of experiencing multiple emergency department contacts for asthma for every log-unit of traffic exposure. Another study found pronounced deficits in attained lung function at age 18 years were recorded for those living within 500 m of a freeway Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: a case-control study Yifang Zhu, William C Hinds, Seongheon Kim, Si Shen, Constantinos Sioutas, Study of ultrafine particles near a major highway with heavy-duty diesel traffic Atmospheric Environment, Volume 36, Issue 27, September 2002, Pages 4323-4335 Cook et al. Environmental Health 2011, 10:52 http://www.ehjournal.net/content/10/1/52 Effect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: a cohort study W James Gauderman et al http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS014 0-6736(07)60037-3/abstract http://www.epa.gov/ncer/reports/r827352C006fr.pdf
  34. 34. Schools Located Near Major Highway (Keck School of Med.) Childhood Incident Asthma and Traffic-Related Air Pollution at Home and School By Rob McConnell, et al • Results indicate that children exposed to higher levels of traffic-related air pollution at school and home are at increased risk of developing asthma. • Almost 10% of public schools in California are located within 150 m of roadways with >25,000 vehicles daily. • Students in urban areas in eastern U.S. cities are even more likely … to attend schools near major highways. • And one in three US public schools is within about 1,300 feet, or a quarter mile, from a major highway. • Environmental Health Perspectives • volume 118 | number 7 | July 2010
  35. 35. Schools Located Near Major Highway (San Antonio)
  36. 36. Assessing the Indoor Environment Irritant Gases Irritant Gases
  37. 37. Outside Air Contaminants Ozone; Hot & Sunny Days Water Vapor in Hot and Humid Climates Other Gases; Sewer, Boiler Gas, Industrial Chemical and Biological Threats; Pranksters Source: ASHRAE 62.1-2007 Source: www.airnow.gov
  38. 38. Sources of Irritant Gases CLEAN AIR ROOMS Allergy Friendly Rooms Scented Products Use Rules Many chemicals contained in scented products are known to be respiratory irritants. Even at very low concentration levels, they can trigger a wide range of adverse, and sometimes severe, physical responses in individuals with respiratory sensitivities. For example, affected individuals can experience asthmatic reactions, such as difficulty breathing, excessive coughing, irritated eyes and nose, etc. Other responses could include migraine headaches, itchy, sore skin, tingling body parts, rashes, severe headaches, nausea, dizziness and shortness of breath. When exposure is indoors, the impact is magnified. http://www.ehs.utoronto.ca/resources/HSGuide/Scent.htm http://www.yorku.ca/dohs/doc/GuidelinesNotices/ScentedProducts/scentedproduct.pdf
  39. 39. Sources of Irritant Gases Entrainment of Irritant Gases Sewer vent gases and boiler combustion vent gases are entrained with the outside air with the intake hoods are located too close on the roof
  40. 40. InfiltrationOpen Building Penetrations Infiltration From From Unsealed PenetrationsThe FourthSource of Outside are a I of IEQ Air Contaminants after Construction Contaminated air flows through unsealed penetrations for pipe, conduit and duct into the return air conveyance system of HVAC
  41. 41. Research Shows the Test Score Effects of Irritant Gases For every unit (1 l/s per person) increase in the ventilation rate, the proportion of students passing standardized test (i.e., scoring satisfactory or above) is expected to increase by 2.9% (95%CI 0.9–4.8%) for math, 2.7% (0.5–4.9%) for reading. Sources: Dr. Richard Shaughnessy, Indoor Air Program, Uni. of Tulsa Dr. P. Wargocki, International Centre for Indoor Environments, Uni. of Denmark Indoor Air Quality Scientific Findings Resource Bank (IAQ-SFRB), Indoor Environment Department of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory www.iaqscience.lbl.gov/sfrb.html
  42. 42. Research Shows the Absenteeism Effects of Irritant Gases 1 l/s plus reduces . absences by 1.6% 3.4% fewer student absences $33M higher state funding Desired level 1000 ppm > 7.10 l/s/p (15 cfm/p) Better Classroom Ventilation Means Fewer Absences Association of classroom ventilation with reduced illness absence: Mark Mendell, Ekaterina Eliseeva, Molly Davies, Michael Spears, Agnes Lobscheid, William Fisk, et al Indoor Air Quality Scientific Findings Resource Bank (IAQ-SFRB), Indoor Environment Department of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory www.iaqscience.lbl.gov/sfrb.html
  43. 43. Research Shows the Health Effects of Irritant Gases The research study data available suggests that • indicators of inflammation, • rates of communicable respiratory infections, • frequency of asthma symptoms and • rates of short-term sick leave increase with lower ventilation rates in the building environments studied “Ventilation rates and health: multidisciplinary review of the scientific literature” by J. Sundell, H. Levin, W. W. Nazaroff, W. S. Cain, W. J. Fisk, D. T. Grimsrud, F. Gyntelberg, Y. Li, A. K. Persily, A. C. Pickering, J. M. Samet, J. D. Spengler, S. T. Taylor, C. J. Weschler 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S, INDOOR AIR
  44. 44. Actual Experience Shows Health Benefits of Ventilation in Schools PRN Inhaler Use since School Opening School A 94 100 60 80 Total PRN per Month School B 71 43 60 28 40 16 23 13 3 20 8 12 43 30 47 40 20 21 21 11 10 0 Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March April May Month Since Opened School A had low ventilation rates The 93 asthmatic students at School A were requesting their PRN inhaler at 2 to 3 times more than the 102 asthmatic students at School B
  45. 45. Actual Experience Shows Test Score Benefits of Ventilation in Schools 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 School B School A W rit M in at g he m at ic s S C om cie m nce .R ea d C om ing m .M at h. R ea di ng /E LA Percent Met Standard 2011 TAKS Tests Results Subject Area School A had low ventilation rates School B had higher percentages (up to 4% higher) of students passing reading, writing and mathematics sections. School B had 11% and 16% more students than School A obtaining the Commended Level on the reading and mathematics tests (students correctly answered 90% or better of the TAKS questions).
  46. 46. Ventilation Air Energy Penalty • Fan energy is required to force outside air into the school building • Fan energy is required to exhaust air from the school building, • Thermal energy is required to cool, heat and dehumidify outside to indoor comfort conditions • Energy Cost is about $1.50/Cubic Feet/Minute Source: J. Dieckmann, et al, “Air Purification to Reduce Outside Air”, ASHRAE Journal April, 2009, pps 68-70
  47. 47. Benefits of IAQ Procedure
  48. 48. Gas Phase Filtration Media • Media is a combination of activated carbon, and an activated alumina substrate impregnated with sodium permanganate. • By using these media in combination, the removal of most irritant gases is achieved. Air Cleaning in Practice – School Sustainability and Commercial Building Field Study Results http://www.purafil.com/PDFs/Technical%20Papers/Commercial/Air%20Cleaning%20in%20Practice%20(IAQA%202009).pdf
  49. 49. Polarized Media Filtration Devices Electrostatic attraction & Agglomeration Ability to collect particles < 0.3 Microns Loading Characteristics - + _ _ __ _ _ _ _ + + _ + + _ _ + + + _ + _ _ -+ _ _ + + + + + + + + + + _+ Polarized fiber Passive fiber +7,000 vdc applied to center screen 7,000 Polarized media fibers Grounded screens
  50. 50. Pressure Drop vs Dust Load Polarized Media Air Filtration Devices
  51. 51. ASHRAE 52.2 Test Results
  52. 52. Cost Benefit from Extended Filter Service and Power Use
  53. 53. Asthma Risk and VOC Level For every 10 unit increase in the concentration of toluene and benzene (µg/m3) the risk of having asthma increased by almost two and three times, respectively. Source: Association of domestic exposure to volatile organic compounds with asthma in young children, K Rumchev, J Spickett, M Bulsara, M Phillips, and S Stick http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1747137/?tool=pubmed
  54. 54. Total Volatile Organic Compounds and TVOC Meter Technology • Volatile Organic Compounds = VOCs = Odors & Irritants &Toxicity – Many sources include microbial life forms – Many under 0.001 micron and too small for removal by normal filtration media – Removed by adsorption with carbon or other adsorbent material in gas phase filters – Removed by capture with ultra fine particles in polarized media filtration devices – Measurable with portable handheld devices
  55. 55. Actual Experience Shows Benefits of Reducing VOC’ s • North East ISD reported a savings of 30% in Custodial costs and a reduction of 25% in Sick Days among Custodial and Maintenance team • Lockport Township High School, in Lockport, Ill., reported a 3% increase in the average daily attendance after the first year of implementing an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Management plan). http://www.healthyschoolscampaign.org/programs/gcs/success.php http://www.cleaningforhealthyschools.org/documents/FAQs.pdf http://media.cefpi.org/southern/EPA_GreenCleaning.pdf
  56. 56. Assessing the Indoor Environment Infectious Microbes Infectious Microbes
  57. 57. Beneficial Microbes • Human Microbiome Project – 1000 species of bacteria on human skin Source: Julia Segre, et al National Institutes of Health May 29, 2009 • Home Land Security Project – 1800 types of airborne microbes in Austin and San Antonio ambient air Source: Gary Anderson, et al, Berkley National Laboratory National Academy of Sciences December 19, 2006
  58. 58. Infectious Microbes Viruses, bacteria, amoebae, fungi, and other microbial parasites can invade the human body – 100 Trillion Bacteria cells on/in human body – 100 Bacteria species pathogenic to humans – 33% Humans carry M. tuberculosis – 50% Humans carry H. pylori – 50% Humans Source: B. Brett Finlaycarry S. Aureus The Art of Bacterial Warfare, Scientific American February, 2010 pps 56-63 http://www.ploscollections.org/article/browseIssue.action?i ssue=info:doi/10.1371/issue.pcol.v01.i13
  59. 59. Actual Experience Shows Health Benefits of Hygiene in Schools Good hand and surface hygiene can reduce illness and school absenteeism rate among children and adults by 30% to 50% Source: Charles P. Gerba, Ph.D University of Arizona Cleaning Up: Battling Germs in School Facilities. School Business Affairs volume 75, number 2, Association of School Business Officials International February, 2009.
  60. 60. Research Shows the Effects of Infectious Microbes • Research evidence suggests that a large portion of enteric and respiratory illnesses can be prevented through improved environmental hygiene, with an emphasis on better hand and surface cleaning practices. Source: International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene. 2002. The infection potential in the domestic setting and the role of hygiene practice in reducing infection. http://www.ifh-homehygiene.org
  61. 61. Clean Classroom Hygiene Standard & ATP Meter Technology ISSA K-12 Classroom Clean Standard Elements: (a) basic or preliminary facilities walk-through (b) recommendations for subsequent ventilation study/IEQ measures (c) visual dust and soils criteria, or settled and measurable dust (d) bio-contamination using adenosine triphosphate, ATP luminescence based on (e) pre-cleaning and post-cleaning assessment of multiple interior surfaces, and (f) record keeping and enhancements or corrective actions. (g) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) meter has capability to measure the level of microbial life present on a high touch and hard classroom surface. http://www.issa.com/data/File/CIRI/CLEAN%20STANDARD%20OUTLINE_JUNE%202012.pdf
  62. 62. Microbiome of Humans One person sheds each hour 2,400,000 skin cells (Motionless, up to 500,000 particles per minute. When active, this level can reach up to 45,000,000 particles per minute.) And 35,000,000 bacterial cells “An important public health consequence… is that through direct inhalation of resuspended or shed organisms there is a potential for current or previous occupants of a room to contribute substantially to inhalation exposure to bioaerosols” Hospodsky D, Qian J, Nazaroff WW, Yamamoto N, Bibby K, et al. (2012) Human Occupancy as a Source of Indoor Airborne Bacteria. PLoS ONE 7(4): April 18, 2012
  63. 63. Microbiome of Humans and Buildings ? microbiome is the totality of microbes, their genetic elements (genomes), and environmental interactions in a particular environment. ? The term "microbiome" was coined by Joshua Lederberg, who argued that microorganisms inhabiting the human body should be included as part of the human genome, because of their influence on human physiology. ? The human body contains over 10 times more microbial cells than human cells, although the entire microbiome only weighs about 200 grams (7.1 oz). ? Microbiomes are being characterized in many other environments as well, including soil, seawater/freshwater systems and buildings. Information:http://www.yourwildlife.org/the-wild-life-of-our-bodies/
  64. 64. Tracking Flu Activity Peak of Seasonal Flu Year 2010-2011 is shown in pink and peaked at 10 % of visits due to Influenza like illness (ILI) in mid February Source: http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/idcu/disease/influenza/surveillance/2011/
  65. 65. Actual Experience with Seasonal Flu ADA Rates for each 6 Week Periods of 10-11 Attendance, % School A 98.5 98 97.5 97 96.5 96 95.5 95 94.5 98.1 97.9 97.5 School B Seasonal Flu period 97.3 96.9 96.6 District Average 97.8 97.5 97.0 96.5 97.1 96.5 96.1 96.9 96.7 97.2 96.8 96.4 95.6 95.5 94.7 1 2 3 4 5 Six Week Period 6 Total 7 School A had low ventilation rates* 4th 6 Weeks are during Jan and Feb and has about a 2% drop in ADA from other 6 Week Periods * Li Y, et al., Role of ventilation in airborne transmission of infectious agents in the built environment: a multidisciplinary systematic review. Indoor Air 2007;17:2-18.
  66. 66. Reduced Risk of Flu Infection Source: Parham Azimi and Brent Stephens, Ph.D., the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago http://built-envi.com/
  67. 67. Engineering Controls to Reduce Infectious Microbe Transmission. S tr tegi f Cl sr a es or asoom s Diuti Ventia on l on l ti P er onai ventia on s lzed l ti S our e ca e c ptur Centr l ys fl a on a s tem itr ti L oca fl a on/cea ng l itr ti l ni Duc U VGI t Add Shed and Resuspended Particles T he AS HR AE P os on Doc i ti ument on Aibor I ecti Diea es a r 2012 r ne nf ous s s J nuay by the S oci s r ne I ecti Diea es os on Doc ety’ Aibor nf ous s s P i ti ument Com m i ttee. http://w w w . s a or bout-s a a hr e. g/a a hr e/pos on- um ents i doc ti
  68. 68. Built Environment Microbiome Project http://biology.uoregon.edu/biobe/ The BioBE Center is based at the University of Oregon and led by Jessica Green (Director) Brendan Bohannann G.Z. (Charlie) Brown
  69. 69. Jessica Green on Building Microbes “Architectural design influences the diversity and structure of the built environment Microbiome.” http://www.nature.com/ismej/journal/ v6/n8/pdf/ismej2011211a.pdf http://www.ted.com/talks/jessica_green_are_we_filtering_the_wrong_microbes.html http://biology.uoregon.edu/people/green/Science-2012-Humphries.pdf
  70. 70. Latest Estimates on Better IEQ Benefits • Fisk and Brunner IEQ in Office Study * The estimated benefits of the IEQ scenarios analyzed are substantial in magnitude. The combined potential annual economic benefit of a set of non-overlapping IEQ scenarios is approximately $20 billion. • Trasande and Liu Environmental Illness in Children Costs Study** Poor childhood health caused by environmental factors costs the United States $76.6 Billion in 2008 *See the October 2011 issue of Indoor Air from the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate – ISIAQ. **See the May 2011 issue of Health Affairs
  71. 71. ASHRAE IAQ Guide (Free) American Institute of Architects, U.S. Green Building Council, Builders and Owners Management Association International, Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors of North America, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. www.ashrae.org/FreeIAQGuidance
  72. 72. EPA References for Improved Academic Performance, Student Health, and Teacher Retention Test scores uniformly increase as building conditions improve. Test scores can increase by 3 percent to 17 percent. Sources: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/student_performance/index.html
  73. 73. We Learn Here and Where We Learn Matters http://vimeo.com/46229583
  74. 74. EPA Guidelines for School Siting and Environmental Health Programs EPA’ voluntary School Siting Guidelines encourage s consideration of environmental factors in local school siting decision-making processes. http://www.epa.gov/schools/siting/ EPA’ voluntary State K-12 School Environmental s Health Program Guidelines provide a framework for improving the health and well-being of students by creating and sustaining healthy, safe, and productive school environments. http://www.epa.gov/schools/ehguidelines/down loads/ehguidelines-draft.pdf
  75. 75. Center for Green Schools USGBC Local Leaders in Sustainability: Special Report from Sundance, A National Action Plan for Greening America's Schools • The report provides a comprehensive review of the benefits of green schools; •a summary of local, state and federal policy solutions; •leadership profiles of green school advocates; and •case studies from both large cities and small communities. •these resources serve as a roadmap on the journey to green schools. http://www.centerforgreenschools.org/docs/USGBC%20Mayors%20Summit%20Report_FINAL.pdf The Impact of School Buildings on Student Health and Performance The report is an accessible account of current research connecting school buildings with student health and performance and includes a summary of research needed and how individual groups (teachers and students, design professionals, government agencies, etc.) can help in the effort to draw connections between where students learn and their well being. http://centerforgreenschools.org/studies.aspx
  76. 76. Additional References on Impacts of Indoor Environments on Human Performance and Productivity Scientific Findings Resource Bank (IAQ-SFRB) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Impacts of Building Ventilation on Health and Performance Indoor Dampness, Biological Contaminants and Health Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Health Impacts of Indoor Environments on Human Performance and Productivity Benefits of Improving Indoor Environmental Quality Source: and http://www.iaqscience.lbl.gov/

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