Project Management...Globalization And Cultural Diversity


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Project Management in a Globalized and Culturally Diverse Environment

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Project Management...Globalization And Cultural Diversity

  1. 1. Jorge  L.  Vargas,  PMP   Project  Management…   Globaliza4on  and  Cultural  Diversity  
  2. 2. Introduc4on   •   Background   –  Globaliza:on  is  a  phenomenon  involving  the  integra:on  of  economies,   cultures,  governmental  policies,  and  poli:cal  movements  around  he   world.   –  Culture  is  that  complex  whole  which  includes  knowledge,  belief,  art,   morals,  law,  custom,  etc.  (Edward  BurneF  Tylor,  Primi%ve  Culture  1871)   •  Purpose   –  Create  awareness  on  why  Globaliza:on  and  Cultural  Diversity  issues  are   important  for  Project  Managers.   •  Expecta:ons   –  Ini:ate  the  learning  process  on  how  to  improve  our  cultural  intelligence,   as  it  applies  to  Project  Management.   –  Present  some  of  the  ac:ons,  tools,  and  techniques  that  will  help   develop  cultural  intelligence  in  a  globalized  environment.    
  3. 3. Outline  
  4. 4. EADS  A380  Program  Overview   •  Who’s  EADS  (European  Aeronau:c  Defense  and  Space  Company)   –  Is  a  large  European  aerospace  corpora:on  that  develops  and  markets  civil   and  military  aircraU  as  well  as  communica:on  systems,  missiles,  space   rockets,  satellites  and  related  systems.   •  What’s  the  A380   –  The  largest  passenger  airliner  in  the  world  providing  sea:ng  from  525  to   853  people  (depending  on  configura:on)  and  a  range  of  8,200  nau:cal   miles.   •  Key  Aspects   –  Direct  compe::on  to  Boeing’s  747   –  Highly  sophis:cated  avionics  (Glass  Cockpit)   –  Use  of  advanced  composites  (Carbon,  Glass  and  Quartz  Fiber)  
  5. 5. EADS  A380  Program  (con4nued)   EADS’s  A380  
  6. 6. EADS  A380  Program  (con4nued)   •  Challenges   –  11B  Euro  project  delayed  2  years   –  2B  Euros  in  cost  over  runs   –  Issues  with  wiring,  wing’s  strength,  change  control,  etc.     –  But  the  most  cri:cal  issue  was…intercultural     –  Customers…unhappy  with  delays   –  Aerospace  market…wai:ng   •  EADS  was  looking  for  delay’s  root  cause   –  Performed  an  intercultural  survey   (Ar:cle  by  Ian  Stokes,  2006  Olsen  Conseil,    Two  Billion  Euros  of  Hurt)  
  7. 7. EADS  A380  Program    (con4nued)   Intercultural  Survey  Findings   •  French   –  Respeceul  of  hierarchy   –  Preference  for  a  centralized  execu:ve   –  Less  formal  in  their  communica:on  and  decision  making   •  Germans   –  Extremely  precise  and  organized   –  Respeceul  of  hierarchy   –  Prefer  collec%ve  decision  making  
  8. 8. EADS  A380  Program    (con4nued)   Intercultural  Survey  Findings  (con4nued)   •  Bri:sh   –  Totally  focused  on  financial  priori:es   –  Indirect,  informal,  imprecise,  unclear   –  Pragma:c,  wanted  prac:cal  solu:ons   •  Spanish   –  Strongly  patrio:c  and  proud   –  Considerate,  relaxed,  open,  crea:ve,  coopera:ve   –  Tendency  to  be  vague  and  unreliable  
  9. 9. EADS  A380  Program    (con4nued)   Intercultural  Survey  Findings  -­‐  Conclusion   •  Percep:ons  between  team  members  highly  stereotyped   –  French:  Wanted  a  strong  man  at  the  top   –  Germans:  Wanted  more  consensus   –  Bri:sh:  Lament  the  absence  of  an  economic  solu:on   –  Spanish:  Felt  somehow  inferior  or  not  considered  as  equals  
  10. 10. EADS  A380  Program    (con4nued)   Intercultural  Survey  Findings  -­‐  Major  Issues   •  Geographical       –  Domes:c  vs.  Interna:onal     •  Ethnocentric   –  Our  way  vs.  Their  way       •  Work  styles   –  Organized  vs.  Disorganized   •  Language   –  Verbal  and  Physical  
  11. 11. Bridging  The  Gap   How  do  we  bridge  the  Intercultural  gap?     Let’s  see…  
  12. 12. Culture  –  Introduc4on   •  What  is  culture?   –  A  collec:ve  programming  of  the  mind  which  dis:nguishes  the   members  of  one  category  of  people  from  another  (Geert  Hofstede).   –  Lens  through  which  we  look  at  the  world  (Tom  Verghese).   •  Culture  is  learned  not  inherited   •  Culture  influences:   –  How  to  dress   –  How,  what,  and  when  to  eat   –  How  to  show  feelings   –  Marriage  customs   –  Religious  ceremonies   –  Leisure  :me   •  We  oUen  fail  to  understand  our  own  culture  
  13. 13. Culture  –  Human  Mental  Programming  Model   Specific to Inherited and individuals Personality   learned Specific to group Learned or category Culture   Universal Human  Nature   Inherited (Hofstede 2005)
  14. 14. Culture  –  The  Three  Culture  Model   Personal   Culture   Na:onal   Corporate   Culture   Culture   Our   Unique   Culture   (Adapted from Gardenswartz, Row, Dight & Bennett, 2003)
  15. 15. Culture  –  Components  of  Cultural  Intelligence  (CQ)   Behavioral   Skills   CQ Knowledge   Mindfulness   (Thomas & Inkson, 2004)
  16. 16. Culture  –  Characteris4cs  of  Cultural  Intelligence   •  Understanding  of  self   •  Understanding  of  others   •  Openness   •  Humbleness   •  Curiosity   •  Hardiness   •  Genuineness  
  17. 17. Culture  –  Examples  of  Cultural  Behaviors   •  Stereotyping   –  Categoriza:on  that  organizes  our  experience  and  guides  our  behavior  towards   groups  (“Are  they  deaf?,  They  don’t  understand!”).   •  Ethnocentrism   –  Belief  in  the  inherent  superiority  of  one’s  group  and  culture  (blocks  the   exchange  of  ideas  and  skills  among  people,  it  is  polarized  against  others).   •  Parochialism   –  Viewing  the  world  solely  through  one’s  own  eyes  and  perspec:ve  (“I’m  always   right”).   •  Ethno-­‐rela:ve   –  Understanding  and  seeing  our  culture  as  equal  among  other  cultures  (strive  to   accept,  adapt,  and  integrate).   •  Reality   –  We  unconsciously  stereotype  other’s   –  Others  stereotype  us  
  18. 18. Culture  –  Intellectual  Sensi4vity   Ethno-centric Ethno-relative Denial   Defense   Minimiza:on   Acceptance   Adapta:on   Integra:on  
  19. 19. Tools  and  Techniques  –  Managing  Cultural  Diversity   Cultural Dominance “My Culture’s Way” Cultural Compromise Cultural Cultural Avoidance Accommodation “Their Culture’s Way”
  20. 20. Tools  and  Techniques  –  Do’s  &  Don’ts   Do   Do  Not   Analyze  the  iden4ty  and  background  of  the   Shout  as  your  associates  were  deaf,  or  speak   person  whom  you  will  be  working.   too  fast.   Be  prepared  with  informa4on  about  your   Use  slang  or  terms  borrowed  from  sports  or   country…  facts  and  informa4on  about  you.   other  cultural  context,  e.g.  “catch-­‐22”   Speak  so  slow  that  you  are  insul:ng;  use   Respect  your  associates’  effort  and  willingness   idioma:c  phrases,  acronyms,  or  complicated   to  communicate  in  your  language.   sentences.   Judge  or  analyze  others  from  your  own   Be  open  minded  and  flexible.   cultural  perspec4ve.   Listen  ac:vely  and  test  for  understanding,  and     Become  short-­‐tempered  or  impa4ent  if   encourage  your  cross-­‐cultural  friends  to  do  the   someone  wishes  to  build  a  rela4onship  with   same.   you  before  they  get  down  to  business.   Underes:mate  the  importance  of  non-­‐verbal   No:ce    non-­‐verbal  communica:on  –  watch   communica:on  –  how  you  hold  yourself,  move,   people’s  eyes,  face  and  gesture  to  pickup  non-­‐ dress,  use  your  hands,  look  at  people;  your   verbal  clues.   inflec:on  and  facial  expressions  are  important.   (The Invisible Elephant, Tom Verghese 2007)
  21. 21. Tools  and  Techniques  –  Do’s  &  Don’ts   Do   Do  Not   Respect  other  team  members  prac4ces  related   Consider  your  loca4on’s  religion  and/or   to  religious  and/or  poli4cal  affilia4ons  and   poli4cs  and  it’s  prac4ces  as  the  only  ones.     accommodate  them  in  accomplishing  the   project  schedule.  This  may  include:  prayer   4mes,  observance  of  holydays,  dietary   restric4ons,  dress  code,  etc.   Learn  and  be  sensible  to  Ethnic  issues  that   Despise  Ethnic  sensi:vity  or  consider  it  not   maybe  present  among  team  members.   important.   Foster  diversity  in  your  team’s  composi4on.   AFribute  team’s  performance  to  Ethnic   differences.   Respect  and  manage  behavioral  diversity.   Manage  behavioral  diversity  as  a  nuisance.   Understand  that  work  pace  varies  among   Take  disagreement  or  work  style  differences  as   team  members.   a  personal  acack.   Learn  and  adapt  to  diverse  communica4on   Let  your  emo4ons  hamper  communica4ons.   styles.  
  22. 22. Tools  and  Techniques  (con4nued)   Language,  Protocols,  Knowledge   •  Learn  to  speak  a  relevant  foreign  language   –  Fluency  is  not  required   –  Learn  the  six  basics                 •  Yes,  No,  Please,  Thank  you,  Hello,  Good-­‐bye  (English)   •  Ja,  Nein,  BiFe,  Danke,  Hallo,  Auf  Wiedersehen  (German)   •  Oui,  Non,  s'il  vous  plaît,  Bonjour,  Au  Revoir  (French)   •  Pay  aFen:on  to  formali:es  and  protocols  (Handshakes,  etc.)   •  Be  a  sympathe:c  na:ve  listener  (Listen  around  the  words)   •  Target  country  knowledge   –  History  Overview  /  Economic  System  /  Social  Structure  and  Ethnicity   •  Integra:on  Ac:vi:es   –  Workshops,  games,  training,  etc.  
  23. 23. Learning's   •  EADS  A380   –  Learned,  adapted  and  conquered   –  A380  is  a  marvel  of  modern  aerospace  engineering   •  Cultural  Intelligence   –  Iden:fy  your  areas  of  opportunity  and  develop  them  into  strength's   –  Cultural  intelligence  is  a  soU  skill,  nurture  and  develop  it   •  Mindset   –  Eager  to  learn  about  cultures,  our  own  and  others   –  Understand  that  there  is  beauty  in  diversity   –  Globaliza:on  and  cultural  diversity  are  here  to  stay     –  We  have  to  learn  to  adapt…  and  benefit  from  it   –  It  requires  ac:ve  involvement  
  24. 24. PM  BOK  4th  Edi4on   •  Chapter  1  -­‐  Role  of  a  Project  Manager   •  Chapter  2  -­‐  Project  Life  Cycle  and  Organiza:on   –  2.3  Stakeholders   –  2.4.1  Organiza:ons  Cultures  and  Styles   •  Chapter  6  -­‐  Project  Time  Management       –  6.4.2  Es:mate  Ac:vity  Dura:ons:  Tools  and  Techniques   •  Chapter  9  -­‐  Project  Human  Resource  Management   –  Enterprise  Environmental  Factors   –  9.3.2:  Develop  Project  Team:  Tools  and  Techniques   •  Interpersonal  Skills   –  Empathy,  influence,  crea:vity,  group  facilita:on  
  25. 25. PM  BOK  4th  Edi4on  (con4nued)   •  Chapter  9  (con:nued)   –  9.3.2  Develop  Project  Team:  Tools  and  Techniques   •  Team-­‐Building  Ac:vi:es   –  Improve  interpersonal  rela:onships   •  Ground  Rules   –  Clear  guidelines   •  Co-­‐loca:on   –  Most  ac:ve  project  members  in  the  same  physical  loca:on  (If  possible)   •  Recogni:on  and  Rewards   –  Recognize  and  reward  desirable  behavior   •  Chapter  10  –  Project  Communica:ons  Management   –  Communica:ons  Models   •  Appendix  G.7  –  Poli:cal  and  Cultural  Awareness  
  26. 26. References   •  PMBOK  Guide,  A  Guide  To  The  Project  Management  Body  Of  Knowledge      4th  Edi:on,  2008  Project  Management  Ins:tute,  ISBN  978-­‐1-­‐933890-­‐51-­‐7   •  The  Invisible  Elephant  –  Exploring  Cultural  Awareness    2nd  Edi:on,  2007,  Tom  Verghese  ISBN  0-­‐9775967-­‐0-­‐2   •  Gestures  –  The  DO’s  and  TABOOs  of  Body  Language  Around  The  World          Revised  and  Expanded  Edi:on  1998,  Roger  E.  Axtell  ISBN  0-­‐471-­‐18342-­‐3   •  Mul4cultural  Manners  –  Essen4al  Rules  of  E4quece  for  the  21st  Century        Revised  and  Expanded  Edi:on,  2005,  Norine  Dresser  ISBN  13-­‐978-­‐0-­‐471-­‐68428-­‐2   •  Cultural  Intelligence  –  A  Guide  to  Working  with  People  from  Other  Cultures    2004,  Brooks  Peterson,  ISBN  13-­‐978-­‐1-­‐931930-­‐00-­‐0   •  Cultural  Intelligence  –  People  Skills  for  Global  Business    Copyright  ©  2003  David  C.  Thomas  and  Kerr  Inkson   •  Two  Billion  Euros  of  Hurt,  Olsen  Conseil    Ar:cle  by  Ian  Stokes  December  28,  2006  
  27. 27. Ques4ons  &  Answers  
  28. 28. Acknowledgement's   •  Enid  T.  Vargas,  PMP     •  Ing.  José  A.  Rodríguez,  PMP     •  Juan  P.  Gu:errez,  Director,  Opera:onal  Excellence,  BMS  Manay,  PR   •  Debbie  A.  Bouwens,  Process  Systems  Manager,  BMS  Syracuse,  NY   •  Jessica  González,  PMP,  Business  Essen:als,  Inc.   •  Customers  &  Associates    
  29. 29. Quote…   •  "It  is  not  the  strongest  of  the  species  that  survive,  nor  the   most  intelligent,  but  the  one  most  responsive  to  change.”    Charles  Darwin  
  30. 30. For  Further  Informa4on   Jorge  L.  Vargas,  PMP   Tel.  (787)  644-­‐5300   Email:   hFp://