Solar Sytem2


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Identify the inner and outer planets.
Learn how the planet pluto has been
downgraded to a minor planet.

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Solar Sytem2

  1. 1. THE SOLAR SYSTEM By Mrs. JoAnn Kwasnick
  3. 3. PLANETS <ul><li>THE INNER </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury </li></ul><ul><li>Venus </li></ul><ul><li>Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Mars </li></ul><ul><li>THE OUTER </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter </li></ul><ul><li>Saturn </li></ul><ul><li>Uranus </li></ul><ul><li>Neptune </li></ul>
  4. 4. NOTE <ul><li>PLUTO- In spite of having a moon (Charon) </li></ul><ul><li>has been downgraded to a minor </li></ul><ul><li>planet. It is not considered a </li></ul><ul><li>direct part of our solar system. </li></ul><ul><li>The status change of Pluto was </li></ul><ul><li>determined by the International </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomical Union. </li></ul>
  5. 5. THE INNER PLANETS <ul><li>MERCURY,Venus, Earth, and Mars are the inner </li></ul><ul><li>Planets. These planets are relatively close </li></ul><ul><li>TO THE SUN. ALL ARE SOLID ROCKLIKE BODIES IN </li></ul><ul><li>CONTRAST TO THE OUTER PLANETS, WHICH ARE </li></ul><ul><li>MOSTLY GASEOUS. </li></ul>
  6. 6. MERCURY <ul><li>Mercury is the second smallest planet in the solar system. Usually, </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury cannot be viewed because it is too close to the sun. When </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury can be seen, it is close to the horizon in the early morning or </li></ul><ul><li>late evening sky. Mercury has a very heavily cratered surface like that </li></ul><ul><li>of the moon. The terrain is more rugged than that of our moon. Some </li></ul><ul><li>of the cliffs on Mercury are nearly three kilometers high. Mercury’s </li></ul><ul><li>density suggests an iron rich core, but its magnetic field is extremely </li></ul><ul><li>weak. Its atmosphere, which is mostly sodium, is very thin. Because </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury is a relatively dark object, it does not reflect much of the </li></ul><ul><li>sunlight falling on it. Its temperatures range from over 450 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Celsius by day to about -170 degrees Celsius by night. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Venus and earth <ul><li>Venus and Earth are similar to each other in size, mass, and shape. Therefore, </li></ul><ul><li>it called Earth’s twin. Because it is closer to the sun, Venus receives twice as </li></ul><ul><li>much sunlight as Earth. Nearly three-fourths of this sunlight as Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly three-fourths of this sunlight is reflected into space by the clouds in </li></ul><ul><li>Venus’ dense atmosphere and only 2 percent reaches the surface. This </li></ul><ul><li>small amount is trapped by the cloud cover. Temperatures near the surface </li></ul><ul><li>can reach 400 degrees Celsius, due to the greenhouse effect. The </li></ul><ul><li>atmosphere of Venus is 97 percent carbon dioxide. Droplets of sulfuric acid </li></ul><ul><li>give the clouds of Venus a yellow color. </li></ul><ul><li>Venus appears to go through phases similar to those of our moon. These </li></ul><ul><li>phases occur due to the orbit of Venus around the sun inside the orbit of Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>A compete cycle for these phases takes under two years. Venus has a </li></ul><ul><li>retrograde or opposite rotation from that of most other planets. Rotation is </li></ul><ul><li>extremely slow, 243 Earth days. </li></ul>
  8. 8. earth <ul><li>Earth is the third planet from the sun. It orbits the sun at a mean </li></ul><ul><li>distance of 150 million km, or one AU (Astronomical unit). Earth </li></ul><ul><li>rotates on its axis once in about 24 hours. It revolves around </li></ul><ul><li>around the sun once in about 360 days. Our measurements of </li></ul><ul><li>time are based on these motions. Within the solar system, Earth </li></ul><ul><li>days and years are used to describe the motions of other planets. </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s atmosphere is unique among the planets in our solar system. </li></ul><ul><li>Water vapor has been held in place by gravity. Earth’s atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>moderates temperature, allowing water to exist as a solid, liquid, or gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, Earth’s atmosphere allows most meteors to burn up before they </li></ul><ul><li>reach the surface. It protects life from the sun’s intense radiation. In </li></ul><ul><li>addition, oxygen has been added to the atmosphere over time. </li></ul>
  9. 9. MARS <ul><li>Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. It is referred to as the red planet due to the </li></ul><ul><li>iron oxide in the weathered rocks on its surface. We have known about its polar caps </li></ul><ul><li>for a long time, but many crustal features have since been discovered by probes. </li></ul><ul><li>These probes are Mariner 9 (1971-1972) and Viking 1 and 2 (1976) which gave to us </li></ul><ul><li>Important information about Mars. The Martian terrain consists of ridges and valleys. </li></ul><ul><li>Rift zones, areas of fractures or cracks in the crust, extend for over four thousand </li></ul><ul><li>kilometers across Mars. Olympus Mons, though extinct, is the largest known volcano </li></ul><ul><li>in the solar system. It rises 25 kilometers above the Martian surface. Martian craters </li></ul><ul><li>are numerous. Ejected material seems to have flowed away from the crater. </li></ul><ul><li>Mars’ atmosphere includes clouds and fog. Water vapor condenses at night and </li></ul><ul><li>evaporates when the sun rises. Most of the atmosphere is carbon dioxide, with small </li></ul><ul><li>amounts of nitrogen, argon, and oxygen are present. Dust storms are common on </li></ul><ul><li>Mars. They may be local, or they may spread completely around the planet. </li></ul>
  10. 10. MARS CONTINUED <ul><li>Mars has two moons. Both are irregular in shape. Phobos is about 25 </li></ul><ul><li>kilometers in diameter. Deimos is about 13 kilometers in diameter. The </li></ul><ul><li>surfaces of both moons are heavily cratered much like Earth’s moon. </li></ul><ul><li>Phobos revolves around Mars about three times during a Martian day. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, when viewed from Mars, Phobos rises in the west and sets in the east. </li></ul><ul><li>Phobos is the only solar system moon to do so. Phobos is in an orbit which </li></ul><ul><li>Is spiraling inward towards Mars. It is expected to impact Mars in about </li></ul><ul><li>50 million years. </li></ul>
  12. 12. THE OUTER PLANETS <ul><li>The first four planets from the sun are rocky </li></ul><ul><li>Objects whose mean density is about 4.7 g/cm 3 . </li></ul><ul><li>Between 5 and 30 Au s lies the realm of the giant </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous planets. These outer planets are much </li></ul><ul><li>More massive than the terrestrial planets. </li></ul><ul><li>The mean densities of the Jovian (outer) </li></ul><ul><li>Planets are much lower. </li></ul>
  13. 13. JUPITER <ul><li>Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system and the fifth planet from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter and its 16 moons resemble a miniature solar system. Four of these moons </li></ul><ul><li>are very large. Io, the moon closest to Jupiter, is mostly solid rock. Io has its own </li></ul><ul><li>very thin atmosphere of sulfur and sodium as well as a number of erupting volcanoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Europa is mostly rock with a thick coating of ice. Ganymede , the largest of all the </li></ul><ul><li>solar system moons, is half rock, and half ice. Callisto’s composition is similar to </li></ul><ul><li>Ganymede’s. Some of Jupiter’s other moons may captured space objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists believe that Jupiter is mostly liquid and gaseous hydrogen with some helium, </li></ul><ul><li>ammonia, methane, and water vapor. The composition of the planets core is </li></ul><ul><li>unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>White to reddish-brown cloud bands alternate around Jupiter. Light bands are due </li></ul><ul><li>to rising columns of gas. Dark bands are descending gas. These alternating bands </li></ul><ul><li>are generated by heat from Jupiter’s core. The Great Red Spot on Jupiter is its most </li></ul><ul><li>Spectacular feature. Also, lighting has been observed within Jupiter’s clouds. </li></ul>
  14. 14. saturn <ul><li>Saturn is another gaseous planet like Jupiter. It is the sixth planet from the </li></ul><ul><li>sun and also is known as the ringed planet. It is 95 times more massive than </li></ul><ul><li>Earth. Although it is the second largest planet. Saturn has lowest density. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to this low density Saturn would float on water. Much data has been </li></ul><ul><li>gathered about Saturn by the voyager probes. Over one thousand rings </li></ul><ul><li>have been discovered. Saturn also has 18 or more moons. The largest </li></ul><ul><li>of Saturn’s moons is Titan, which has a dense atmosphere. Saturn’s </li></ul><ul><li>atmosphere is about 60 percent hydrogen with more methane and less </li></ul><ul><li>ammonia than Jupiter’s atmosphere. Saturn has an internal heat source. </li></ul><ul><li>It radiates almost three times more energy into space than it receives from the </li></ul><ul><li>sun. Like Jupiter, Saturn appears to rotate faster at its equator than at the </li></ul><ul><li>poles. </li></ul>
  15. 15. uranus <ul><li>Uranus is a large gaseous planet with at least ten dark rings, with ten </li></ul><ul><li>arc-shaped rings, and 15 moons. Uranus is the seventh planet from </li></ul><ul><li>the sun and was not discovered until 1781. Its rotational axis is </li></ul><ul><li>inclined to its orbit by 98 degrees, so its rotation is retrograde. </li></ul><ul><li>Uranus’ moons have retrograde revolution. Uranus is thought to be </li></ul><ul><li>made up of hydrogen and methane gas. It is methane that give the </li></ul><ul><li>planet its blue-green color. Uranus has few storm systems and no </li></ul><ul><li>cloud bands. </li></ul>
  16. 16. neptune <ul><li>Neptune is also a gaseous planet similar in size and composition to </li></ul><ul><li>Uranus. Discovered in 1846. It is the eighth planet from the sun most </li></ul><ul><li>of the time. However, Pluto’s orbit crosses inside Neptune’s during </li></ul><ul><li>a part of its voyage around the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Neptune’s atmosphere is similar to that of Uranus. The methane </li></ul><ul><li>content gives Neptune its distinctive blue-green color just as it does </li></ul><ul><li>for Uranus. Neptune appears to be surrounded by at least three </li></ul><ul><li>partial ring arcs less than 20 kilometers wide. Neptune has eight </li></ul><ul><li>moons. The largest is Triton , which is larger than Pluto. </li></ul><ul><li>Neptune’s magnetic field is tilted about 55 degrees from its rotational </li></ul><ul><li>axis and offset from the center by half of Neptune’s radius. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Note to students <ul><li>Interested students in </li></ul><ul><li>astronomy can find a </li></ul><ul><li>wealth of additional </li></ul><ul><li>information by contacting </li></ul><ul><li>astronomy clubs in their </li></ul><ul><li>local areas. </li></ul>