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Curriculum and instruction.

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Curriculum and instruction.

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Curriculum and instruction.

  1. 1. ES-331 Curriculum and instruction.
  2. 2. What is curriculum. • Language, • Science • Social science • Mathematics • only these
  3. 3. • School building. • Books • Library • Courts • Games • Etc are needed for the effective implementation of curriculum.
  4. 4. Education has a socializing function • The comment of Aristotle, “as the things are ….mankind is by no means agreed about the thing to be thought….. Again the means there is no agreement”
  5. 5. The word curriculum has been used in many ways. • A school written course of study and other curriculum materials • The subject content taught to the student • The courses offered in a school • And the totality of planned learning experience offered to students in a school.
  6. 6. Definitions • Johnson. 1967. “curriculum is a structured series of indented learning outcomes” • Here the learning outcomes and learning experience constitute curriculum. • David Pratt, 1980. “curriculum is an organized set of formal educational and training intentions”
  7. 7. Four basis of curriculum • 1. social force • Culture, politics, social change, which all helps to build the society. • 2.knowledge of human development as provided by the accepted theories. • 3.the nature of learning • 4.Nature of knowledge and cognation.
  8. 8. Curriculum process and its stages • 1.sellection of goal and objectives. • There are three goals • A, ultimate aim. That is the outcome of 12 years. It is the end products of education spread over a period of time.
  9. 9. b. Mediate aim • An expected goal from each class. In each stages of education behavioral and cognitive expectations are there.
  10. 10. c. Proximate aim. •Class room level behavior after covering each unit.
  11. 11. Selection of learning experience • The learning experience provide physical, mental, or emotional experiences or their mix. • Here the teacher has to ensure that the selected learning experience indeed help in the attainment of a specific educational aim/ objective
  12. 12. Selection of content • . The selection of the content can be viewed at three level • 1. selection and clarification of the conceptual framework related to the content area. • 2.sellection of basic themes or key concepts which along with other basic themes or concepts constitute the framework of knowledge in a given subject.
  13. 13. • 3. at this level the content items are matched with the basic theme/concept they belong to and also with the objective of the curriculum. • This is a journey form general to specific.
  14. 14. Organization and integration of learning experience and content. • The sequence of learning experience makes study more effective. • Jerom S bruner talks of three mode of learning. • 1. Enactive. This is learning by doing.
  15. 15. 2. Iconic
  16. 16. • Iconic learning is based on the use of images and diagrams. • One picture is more effective than thousand words.
  17. 17. sympolic • The learning is based on the use of symbol system. • Language is a very powerful set of symbols. @
  18. 18. Organization and integration of learning experience and content • Available learning situations in school. • Inputs for effective classroom interaction • Developmental level of learners • Principles of learning. • Principles of learning.
  19. 19. Evaluation. • It is a process of judgment based upon relevant evidence.
  20. 20. The major approaches to curriculum • When developing a curriculum six aspects has to be noted. • society • Learner • Subject matter • learning theory • School organization • Criteria of construction.
  21. 21. Process approach • This approach assumes that knowledge in any subject area can be logically conceived and organized.
  22. 22. Process approach. • Observing • Classifying • Using numbers • Measuring. • Predicting • Inferring • Calculating.
  23. 23. Structure approach
  24. 24. Structure. • Minimum essentials are needed to make a structure. • What aspect of a subject matter are more emphasized, in which sequence should these be taught, and how should the content to be presented.
  25. 25. Structure approach. • Every discipline has a basic structure, this structure is reflected by the organization of its content and interrelationships among its various components. • Structure of the discipline includes, concepts, skills, rules as well as principles.
  26. 26. • Then the structure approach helps to formulate various grades for each subjects. • Then changes occur in the structure based curriculum only when the subject matter changes.
  27. 27. • In structure approach the content and the learning outcomes determine the method of teaching. • In structure approach the logic of the structure of discipline is given importance.
  28. 28. Humanistic approach
  29. 29. Humanistic approach. •Tap the interest of the learner it helps motivation. J. Bruner.
  30. 30. Humanistic approach. • It assumes that the purpose of learning is to enable the students to apply their knowledge in a life situation. • The interest of the learner is given importance.
  31. 31. Role of curriculum in effective teaching and learning. • If the teacher is made a partner of curriculum development teaching can be more effective. • Deep knowledge in subject is a help in teaching.
  32. 32. Unit 2.
  33. 33. Considerations for Curriculum Planning • Developmental consideration • Social consideration • Economic consideration • Environmental consideration • Institutional consideration • Teacher-related considerations
  34. 34. Nature of discipline and curriculum planning • A discipline is a logically organized body of subject matter which is distinguished by its scholarly substance and is characterized by its own structure. • Every discipline has field of activity or an area. • Every discipline has its own method or mode of inquiry.
  35. 35. • Then every discipline has a tradition or a history of its own. • Curriculum planning is easy if the structure of the discipline is familiar.
  36. 36. Basic considerations in curriculum planning • 1. developmental considerations • A, Physical development • B, Emotional development • C, Social development • D, Intellectual or cognitive development.
  37. 37. Social considerations • 1.Governmental • All the commissions of government made some kind of influence in policy formulations • 2.Quasi-legal. • PTA, text book writers, publishers, Philanthropic organizations, mass media etc., • 3.professional organizations.
  38. 38. • Professional organizations are, • National council of teacher education NCTE,
  39. 39. Special interest groups in the community. • Patriotic group, cultural and religious organizations, civics groups, etc;
  40. 40. Some other considerations • 1. economic considerations • the main expense of education is met by the - ? • 2.enviormental considerations. • 3. institutional considerations vocational schools, technical schools, the attitude of the management etc.,
  41. 41. Teacher related considerations • The teacher related factors, such as the interpretations, explanations, demonstrations, and guidance in various activities all these are affecting the teaching.
  42. 42. Trends in curriculum • Liberal education. • Education is to liberate the mind of the learner and that it has to be provided to the masses without any discriminations.
  43. 43. Global educations • Globe is like a spider web. The countries are interdependent for many things.
  44. 44. Inter disciplinary content •It helps the students in understanding the fields of different subjects disciplines in a better and realistic manner.
  45. 45. Secularism and education •In the past religion played a vital role now that role is taken by the government.
  46. 46. Psychology and curriculum. •The psychological development of the learner is considered in the development of curriculum.
  47. 47. Possible future trends. • Demographic changes, sex, age, death etc; • Technological innovations, use of machines and increase in productivity. • Social innovations • Cultural diffusions • Information explosion and communication technology.
  48. 48. • New jobs and job opportunities. • Bottom up model, individual learner is given primary focus of attention. The learner is encouraged for study.
  49. 49. Unit 3. Curriculum development • Approaches to curriculum development. • Curriculum approach is a plan that the teacher follow in providing learning activities to the students in schools.
  50. 50. Major categories of curriculum approach. • 1.Subject centered approach. • Here the content transaction is given importance. • 2. Broadfields approach. here the knowledge and understanding pertinent to a whole area of study. Making an attempt to correlate and integrate various areas of knowledge.
  51. 51. Social problem approach • By giving an awareness of the current social issues and problems and enables him/her to effectively resolve social problems.
  52. 52. Learner centered approach. • The learner is given importance.
  53. 53. Issues related to curriculum approaches. • Curriculum approach and instructional methods • Traditional method and progressive method in teaching. • One is lecture, and another is group discussion or problem related studies.
  54. 54. Curriculum approach and various instructional organizations. • Choice of curricular approach.
  55. 55. Models of curriculum development • Technical/scientific models. it enables us to understand curriculum from macro or broad view and to see it as a complex unit of parts organized to serve a common function.
  56. 56. The Tyler Model • The Taba Model.

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