What is curriculum.
• Social science
• only these
• School building.
• Etc are needed for the effective
implementation of curriculum.
Education has a socializing function
• The comment of Aristotle, “as the things are
….mankind is by no means agreed about the
thing to be thought….. Again the means there
is no agreement”
The word curriculum has been used in
• A school written course of study and other
• The subject content taught to the student
• The courses offered in a school
• And the totality of planned learning
experience offered to students in a school.
• Johnson. 1967. “curriculum is a structured
series of indented learning outcomes”
• Here the learning outcomes and learning
experience constitute curriculum.
• David Pratt, 1980. “curriculum is an organized
set of formal educational and training
Four basis of curriculum
• 1. social force
• Culture, politics, social change, which all helps
to build the society.
• 2.knowledge of human development as
provided by the accepted theories.
• 3.the nature of learning
• 4.Nature of knowledge and cognation.
Curriculum process and its stages
• 1.sellection of goal and objectives.
• There are three goals
• A, ultimate aim. That is the outcome of
12 years. It is the end products of
spread over a period of time.
b. Mediate aim
• An expected goal from each class.
In each stages of education
behavioral and cognitive
expectations are there.
c. Proximate aim.
•Class room level
covering each unit.
Selection of learning experience
• The learning experience provide physical,
mental, or emotional experiences or
• Here the teacher has to ensure that the
selected learning experience indeed help
in the attainment of a specific
educational aim/ objective
Selection of content
• . The selection of the content can be viewed at
• 1. selection and clarification of the conceptual
framework related to the content area.
• 2.sellection of basic themes or key concepts
which along with other basic themes or
concepts constitute the framework of
knowledge in a given subject.
• 3. at this level the content items are
matched with the basic theme/concept
they belong to and also with the
objective of the curriculum.
• This is a journey form general to specific.
Organization and integration of
learning experience and content.
• The sequence of learning experience makes
study more effective.
• Jerom S bruner talks of three mode of
• 1. Enactive. This is learning by doing.
• Iconic learning is based on the use of
images and diagrams.
• One picture is more effective than
• The learning is based on the use of
• Language is a very powerful set of
Organization and integration of
learning experience and content
• Available learning situations in
• Inputs for effective classroom
• Developmental level of learners
• Principles of learning.
• Principles of learning.
• It is a process of judgment based
upon relevant evidence.
The major approaches to curriculum
• When developing a curriculum six aspects has
to be noted.
• Subject matter
• learning theory
• School organization
• Criteria of construction.
• This approach assumes that
knowledge in any subject area
can be logically conceived and
• Using numbers
• Minimum essentials are needed to make
• What aspect of a subject matter are
more emphasized, in which sequence
should these be taught, and how should
the content to be presented.
• Every discipline has a basic structure, this
structure is reflected by the organization
of its content and interrelationships
among its various components.
• Structure of the discipline includes,
concepts, skills, rules as well as
• Then the structure approach helps to
formulate various grades for each
• Then changes occur in the structure
based curriculum only when the subject
• In structure approach the content
and the learning outcomes
determine the method of teaching.
• In structure approach the logic of the
structure of discipline is given
•Tap the interest of the
learner it helps motivation.
• It assumes that the purpose of
learning is to enable the students to
apply their knowledge in a life
• The interest of the learner is given
Role of curriculum in effective teaching
• If the teacher is made a partner
of curriculum development
teaching can be more effective.
• Deep knowledge in subject is a
help in teaching.
Nature of discipline and curriculum
• A discipline is a logically organized body
of subject matter which is distinguished
by its scholarly substance and is
characterized by its own structure.
• Every discipline has field of activity or an
• Every discipline has its own method or
mode of inquiry.
• Then every discipline has a
tradition or a history of its own.
• Curriculum planning is easy if the
structure of the discipline is
Basic considerations in curriculum
• 1. developmental considerations
• A, Physical development
• B, Emotional development
• C, Social development
• D, Intellectual or cognitive
• All the commissions of government made
some kind of influence in policy formulations
• PTA, text book writers, publishers,
Philanthropic organizations, mass media etc.,
• 3.professional organizations.
• Professional organizations are,
• National council of teacher
Special interest groups in the
• Patriotic group, cultural and
religious organizations, civics
Some other considerations
• 1. economic considerations
• the main expense of education is met by
the - ?
• 2.enviormental considerations.
• 3. institutional considerations
vocational schools, technical schools, the
attitude of the management etc.,
Teacher related considerations
• The teacher related factors, such as
the interpretations, explanations,
demonstrations, and guidance in
various activities all these are
affecting the teaching.
Trends in curriculum
• Liberal education.
• Education is to liberate the mind
of the learner and that it has to
be provided to the masses
without any discriminations.
• Globe is like a spider web.
The countries are
interdependent for many
Inter disciplinary content
•It helps the students in
understanding the fields of
disciplines in a better and
Secularism and education
•In the past religion
played a vital role now
that role is taken by the
Psychology and curriculum.
development of the
learner is considered in
the development of
Possible future trends.
• Demographic changes, sex, age, death etc;
• Technological innovations, use of machines
and increase in productivity.
• Social innovations
• Cultural diffusions
• Information explosion and communication
• New jobs and job opportunities.
• Bottom up model, individual
learner is given primary focus of
attention. The learner is
encouraged for study.
Unit 3. Curriculum development
• Approaches to curriculum
• Curriculum approach is a plan
that the teacher follow in
providing learning activities to
the students in schools.
Major categories of curriculum
• 1.Subject centered approach.
• Here the content transaction is given
• 2. Broadfields approach. here the knowledge
and understanding pertinent to a whole area
of study. Making an attempt to correlate and
integrate various areas of knowledge.
Social problem approach
• By giving an awareness of the current social
issues and problems and enables him/her to
effectively resolve social problems.
Learner centered approach.
• The learner is given importance.
Issues related to curriculum
• Curriculum approach and instructional
• Traditional method and progressive method in
• One is lecture, and another is group discussion
or problem related studies.
Curriculum approach and various
• Choice of curricular approach.
Models of curriculum development
• Technical/scientific models. it enables us to
understand curriculum from macro or broad
view and to see it as a complex unit of parts
organized to serve a common function.