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Birth of Modern Civil Rights Era


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Birth of Modern Civil Rights Era

  1. 1. CIVIL RIGHTS LECTURE #2: 2007 Legislation Spurs an Era of Nonviolent Protest (1954-1956) What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore—and then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over— Like syrupy sweet? Maybe it sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode? Langston Hughes
  2. 2. TOPIC: DESEGREGATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS Oliver Brown Vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas- May 17,1954
  3. 3. Background of Brown Case <ul><li>Who was Brown? </li></ul><ul><li>What was his case? </li></ul><ul><li>How was the case packaged to reach the Supreme Court? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Thurgood Marshall <ul><li>His role </li></ul><ul><li>Closing Arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Significance to Civil Rights Movement </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Decision of the Warren Court <ul><li>Warren’s conclusion of a unanimous Supreme Court : “in the field of public education, ‘separate but equal’ has no place” </li></ul><ul><li>The court found segregated schools to be in violation of the 14 th amendment </li></ul>
  6. 6. Remaining Question Marks <ul><li>How should desegregation occur? </li></ul><ul><li>How soon, and how fast? The Supreme Court ruled “with all deliberate speed.” Why? What does that mean? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the implications of “with all deliberate speed?” </li></ul><ul><li>How did President Eisenhower feel about the decision, and why is that important? </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Charming Emmett </li></ul><ul><li>A True Abomination </li></ul>The Murder of Emmett Till-1955
  8. 8. The Emmett Till Case <ul><li>Emmett Till- Who was Emmett Till? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was he murdered? </li></ul><ul><li>How and why did the case become famous? </li></ul><ul><li>Roy Bryant and J.W. Milam were accused of murder; what happened to them? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the implications of the case? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Montgomery Alabama—December 1957 <ul><li>December 1, 1955- Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat for a white man who was standing </li></ul><ul><li>The Bus Driver had her arrested for violating the municipal ordinance that mandated segregation on publicly owned vehicles </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rosa Parks <ul><li>42 yr. olds seamstress </li></ul><ul><li>active in the struggle for racial equality and justice </li></ul><ul><li>Positions she held: </li></ul><ul><li>- Secretary of Alabama State Conferences of NAACP Branches </li></ul><ul><li>- Secretary of Montgomery NAACP </li></ul><ul><li>- Adult advisor to NAACP Youth Council </li></ul><ul><li>- Attended a workshop on desegregation at Highlander Folk School in Tennessee </li></ul>
  11. 11. Movement towards Boycott <ul><li>Leaders of Montgomery’s black community move to act </li></ul><ul><li>E.D. Nixon- President of Alabama NAACP; a leader during the WWII March-on-Washington Movement; interested in mass demonstrations as a means of organizing black power </li></ul><ul><li>Started to organize a boycott; it was supposed to last for one day, the day of Parks’ trial, December 5, 1955 </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Boycott <ul><li>Parks agreed to be the cause of the boycott; even though it could cost her job, security…life?! </li></ul><ul><li>On December 5,1955 90% of Montgomery’s blacks boycotted buses </li></ul><ul><li>E.D. Nixon proposed to continue boycott until: </li></ul><ul><li>- city would hire black bus drivers for black neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>- insist on fair treatment of black bus riders </li></ul><ul><li>- first-come, first-served seating system </li></ul><ul><li>What is missing from E.D. Nixon’s requests? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Boycott Continued <ul><li>Question #1: How to organize/inspire the masses of people? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: MIA—Montgomery Improvement Association </li></ul><ul><li>Question #2: Who should lead this boycott? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: It should be someone energetic, inspiring, and someone who can bring together Montgomery’s large and diverse black population </li></ul>
  14. 14. Martin Luther King Jr. <ul><li>What was his background, and how did he end up in Montgomery? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was he chosen to be the leader of boycott? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did he gain fame through the boycott? </li></ul>
  15. 15. MLK & Boycott Gain Attention <ul><li>MLK’s speeches in church rallies in the evening garner support </li></ul><ul><li>King’s Words: “To accept passively an unjust system is to cooperate with that system…Noncooperation with evil is as much a moral obligation as is cooperation with good.” </li></ul><ul><li>Montgomery protesters used these words as strength in the face of harassment </li></ul>
  16. 16. Boycott Events <ul><li>Boycott by carpooling/walking for over a year </li></ul><ul><li>King’s house is bombed; he still preaches love and nonviolence- becomes an important symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Boycott continued until segregation on buses ruled illegal (June, 1956-district court; December, 1956-upheld by Supreme Court) </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 21, 1956- King and aides sat in the front of the bus </li></ul><ul><li>Images are captured by Media </li></ul>
  17. 17. Implications of Boycott <ul><li>King learns that nonviolent direct action is an effective method of creating social change </li></ul><ul><li>King gains national recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Moves the struggle from the courtroom to the streets </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages activism amongst African-Americans </li></ul><ul><li>SCLC is formed </li></ul>