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Neurological Emergencies

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Presentation to participants undertaking the: Critical Care Transition Program at ACT Health, 2008

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Neurological Emergencies

  1. 1. Jamie Ranse : Critical Care Education Coordinator, Staff Development Unit, ACT Health. Neurological Emergencies: Meningitis
  2. 2. definition <ul><li>An acute inflammation of the Pia mater and the arachnoid membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord. </li></ul>
  3. 3. signs and symptoms <ul><li>Common </li></ul><ul><li>Malaise </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Mild to severe headache </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Stiff or painful neck </li></ul><ul><li>Less common </li></ul><ul><li>+’ve Kernig’s sign </li></ul><ul><li>+’ve Brudzinski sign </li></ul><ul><li>Photophobia </li></ul><ul><li>Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased LOC/ coma </li></ul>
  4. 4. signs and symptoms
  5. 5. management <ul><li>Regular GCS to assess LOC </li></ul><ul><li>Regular Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Provide quiet, dark room </li></ul><ul><li>Provide analgesia </li></ul>
  6. 6. Jamie Ranse : Critical Care Education Coordinator, Staff Development Unit, ACT Health. Neurological Emergencies: Meningococcal Disease
  7. 7. overview <ul><li>Incidence </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul>
  8. 8. incidence <ul><li>Caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted by saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Approx 20% of people will carry the bacteria without becoming affected </li></ul><ul><li>Short life span outside of body </li></ul><ul><li>Common strains are B & C </li></ul>
  9. 9. signs and symptoms <ul><li>Malaise </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Mild to severe headache </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Stiff or painful neck </li></ul><ul><li>Photophobia </li></ul><ul><li>Pain in muscles and joints </li></ul><ul><li>Tachypnoea </li></ul><ul><li>Rash </li></ul><ul><li>Pain in chest or abdomen </li></ul>
  10. 10. signs and symptoms: rash <ul><li>Caused by bacteria releasing toxins which damage blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood leaks into the tissues and underneath the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Patients can bleed to death if left untreated </li></ul>
  11. 11. management: incubation <ul><li>2-7 days </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment required for anyone who has had close contact within 7 days </li></ul><ul><li>Once treated they are not contagious </li></ul>
  12. 12. management <ul><li>Regular GCS to assess LOC </li></ul><ul><li>Regular Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Provide quiet, dark room </li></ul><ul><li>Provide analgesia </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive support for septicaemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inotropes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wound care </li></ul></ul>

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