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3.6 effects of depression_on_canadians

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3.6 effects of depression_on_canadians

  1. 1. The Great Depression Causes of and Effects on Canadians
  2. 2. Video Clip • As you watch the clip, write down what your impressions are from it, and any feelings that you may have. • What do you think the clip is trying to convey • What do you see as some causes of the Great Depression
  3. 3. Lead up to Depression • Canada and the US were facing an issue of overproduction because of the ability to mass produce. • When factories had to cut down on the number of products it forced owners to lay off workers. • The more people that were laid off the fewer the number of people could buy the products the factories made and so the cycle continued. (remember the business cycle?)
  4. 4. Canada and the Depression • The depression in Canada was made worse because of the problems American investment had created. – Canada depended on American investment which suddenly halted when the stock market crashed on Black Tuesday October 29, 1929.
  5. 5. Black Tuesday
  6. 6. Desperate Years • As people lost jobs, they lost homes and were evicted • Loss of jobs also meant the loss of respect • Thousands existed on “pogey” – Pogey: Government relief payments given to those who had no alternative source of income • People waited publicly in line for hours, facing humiliation • Declare financial failure • Prove that they were evicted and owned nothing of value
  7. 7. Desperate Times Call for Desperate Measures • Private charities helped those who were desperate, – Provided clothing and meals – Soup kitchen Montreal Soup Kitchen, 1931
  8. 8. The Dust Bowl • Collapse of the wheat market • Prairies were hit by a drought from 1928 that lasted almost eight years • Palliser’s Triangle – semi arid area in S. Alberta and Saskatchewan worst hit • Plague of grasshoppers, stalled trains, buses, clogged car radiators • 1935: Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration Act – helped farmers build irrigation systems and reservoirs
  9. 9. The Women and Minorities • Women had few jobs, other than domestic work • Aboriginal families on relief got $5/month they were expected to hunt and/or fish to make up the difference. • Immigrants were viewed with hostility when they competed for scarce jobs – Jews were targeted, suffered from anti-Semitism
  10. 10. Responding to Depression • Mackenzie King believed that it was municipal and provincial responsibility to provide financial help • King lost election in 1930 replaced by R.B Bennett (Conservatives) who also thought the depression was not the responsibility of the government.
  11. 11. Bennett’s Response • Pledged to “use tariffs to blast a way” into the world markets and out of Depression • Raised tariffs by 50% to protect Canadian industries – Caused trade barriers against Canada
  12. 12. Provincial Issues • Many provincial governments went bankrupt during the depression and needed help being able to run their day to day affairs. • Provincial parties were being quickly booted from office for also failing to stop the depression. • Provinces were told by the federal government that they were responsible for finding work and dealing with unemployment. • The provinces did not, however, have the necessary tools to handle this duty.
  13. 13. Provincial Solutions • Provincial leaders attempted to put down strikes. • In Quebec, Maurice Duplessis, brought the Union Nationale party to power in 1936. In an example of worsening French and English relations: Duplessis blamed Quebec’s social and economic problems on the English minority in Quebec.
  14. 14. Provincial Solutions (cont.) • Duff Pattullo, elected Premier in BC in 1933, shortened the work day, increased the minimum wage, and increased work relief payments by 20 percent. – “A Little New Deal” • The federal government challenged Pattullo on this issue. • Mayors and the Premier in BC were resented less than Bennett, but were still blamed for being ineffective in the fight to slow the depression. • The reactions of the provincial governments varied depending on which province you were in
  15. 15. Increased Regional Tension • King created Rowell-Sirois Commission to examine federal-provincial relations – Recommended that federal government grant equalization payments • Wealthier provinces were angered, may thought it would be loss of provincial power • However, the economy had already made a turn around
  16. 16. It wasn’t all bad… • Entertainment: movies, magazines, romance • Canadians audiences preferred US shows, federal government created a public radio service which became the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) • Grey Owl; conservationist – Devoted latter part of his life to the preservation of northern Canadian forests and disappearing beaver
  17. 17. Grey Owl – The Conservationist

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