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Verbs and AdverbsLEXIS
Verbs• Often referred to as ‘doing words’, as many are  actions eg. jump, take, give, throw.• Other verbs are ‘mental acti...
Verbs• ‘To be’ is also a verb, as are its forms: was, were,  are, am, is.• When a verb is written in that form: to be, to ...
Verbs• The main verb in a sentence is a single verb  that expresses the main meaning.• Auxiliary verbs are ‘helping verbs’...
Verbs• There are two types of auxiliary verbs: primary  and modal.• Primary verbs are: be, have and do.• He is running.• H...
Verbs• Modal verbs are only ever used with another  verb.• They are: can/could, will/would, shall/should,  may/might, must...
Verbs• Present tense – I am writing a letter.• Past tense – I wrote a letter.• Future tense – formed by the modals will or...
Task 1• Identify the verbs as main or auxiliary verbs in  this:I have been to the United States three times. I  have a mon...
Task 1• Identify the verbs as main or auxiliary verbs in  this:I have been to the United States three times. I  have a mon...
Task 2• How does the speaker use modal verbs to  influence their audience?I am addressing you today with our hopes for  to...
Task 2• How does the speaker use modal verbs to  influence their audience?I am addressing you today with our hopes for  to...
Off coursethe golden flood      the weightless seatthe cabin song      the pitch blackthe growing beard       the floating...
Questions1. Are there any sentences in the poem?2. What kinds of phrases are used?3. What can you say about the internal s...
Bleak House• Highlight all verbs in the text.• Given that a main verb describes the action of  the subject of a sentence, ...
Verbs• Look at these sentences:Foot passengers jostled one another’s umbrellas and  lost their foothold at street corners....
Use of modal verbs• Why might modal verbs be used in the following  text types?- horoscopes- weather forecasts- problem pa...
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Verbs

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Verbs

  1. 1. Verbs and AdverbsLEXIS
  2. 2. Verbs• Often referred to as ‘doing words’, as many are actions eg. jump, take, give, throw.• Other verbs are ‘mental actions’ such as think, anticipate.• Others are states of being, eg. seems, appears.• Most sentences contain verbs and the verb usually tells you what the subject is doing.
  3. 3. Verbs• ‘To be’ is also a verb, as are its forms: was, were, are, am, is.• When a verb is written in that form: to be, to swim, to run, to think etc, this is called the infinitive.
  4. 4. Verbs• The main verb in a sentence is a single verb that expresses the main meaning.• Auxiliary verbs are ‘helping verbs’ that are placed in front of main verbs:• I must have been thinking about something else.• ‘must have been’ are three auxiliary verbs.• ‘thinking’ is a main verb.
  5. 5. Verbs• There are two types of auxiliary verbs: primary and modal.• Primary verbs are: be, have and do.• He is running.• Have you spent all your money?• I do want to see you.• I did not go to school yesterday.• The primary verbs can also act as main verbs.• He is tall. She has a new car.
  6. 6. Verbs• Modal verbs are only ever used with another verb.• They are: can/could, will/would, shall/should, may/might, must, ought to.• These verbs can significantly alter the meaning of something spoken or written.
  7. 7. Verbs• Present tense – I am writing a letter.• Past tense – I wrote a letter.• Future tense – formed by the modals will or shall. I will write a letter.• Active voice – The customer wrote a letter of complaint.• Passive voice – A letter of complaint was written.
  8. 8. Task 1• Identify the verbs as main or auxiliary verbs in this:I have been to the United States three times. I have a month’s holiday in August and will be going again, though I may spend some time in Mexico as well.
  9. 9. Task 1• Identify the verbs as main or auxiliary verbs in this:I have been to the United States three times. I have a month’s holiday in August and will be going again, though I may spend some time in Mexico as well.
  10. 10. Task 2• How does the speaker use modal verbs to influence their audience?I am addressing you today with our hopes for tomorrow. We ought to have safer streets. We should be able to walk around our neighbourhood after 9 o’clock without being frightened for our lives. We must have law and order… and we will!
  11. 11. Task 2• How does the speaker use modal verbs to influence their audience?I am addressing you today with our hopes for tomorrow. We ought to have safer streets. We should be able to walk around our neighbourhood after 9 o’clock without being frightened for our lives. We must have law and order… and we will!
  12. 12. Off coursethe golden flood the weightless seatthe cabin song the pitch blackthe growing beard the floating crumbthe shining rendezvous the orbit wisecrackthe hot spacesuit the smuggled mouth-organthe imaginary somersault the visionary sunrisethe turning continents the space debristhe golden lifeline the space walkthe crawling deltas the camera moonthe pitch velvet the rough sleepthe crackling headphone the space silencethe turning earth the lifeline continentsthe cabin sunrise the hot floodthe shining spacesuit the growing moon the crackling somersault the smuggled orbit the rough moon the visionary rendezvous the weightless headphone the cabin debris the floating lifeline the pitch sleep the crawling camera the turning silence the space crumb the crackling beard the orbit mouth-organ the space song
  13. 13. Questions1. Are there any sentences in the poem?2. What kinds of phrases are used?3. What can you say about the internal structure of the phrases?4. What graphological features do you notice, and how do they affect the poem?5. Are there any lexical patterns in the poem (e.g. repetitions, words that go together or clash with one another in terms of meaning)?6. Optional: How do the features we have noticed help us to interpret the poem?
  14. 14. Bleak House• Highlight all verbs in the text.• Given that a main verb describes the action of the subject of a sentence, how many main verbs are there in the text?
  15. 15. Verbs• Look at these sentences:Foot passengers jostled one another’s umbrellas and lost their foothold at street corners.Foot passengers jostling one another’s umbrellas and losing their foothold at street corners.Foot passengers jostling one another’s umbrellas and losing their foothold at street corners, arrived at the bank.The problem with the ‘ing’ form of the verb is that it could indicate any tense, person or number. You need an auxiliary verb to define these.
  16. 16. Use of modal verbs• Why might modal verbs be used in the following text types?- horoscopes- weather forecasts- problem pages- school notices- recipes- legal textsWrite a sample sentence from three of the above showing how modal verbs could be used.

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