People coming from Tennessee or Mississippi were challenged by the swampy lowlands of eastern AR to the settlers. SW of Arkansas was Spanish owned (Texas) Oklahoma was Indian territory and not open to white settlement So AR was off the beaten path and sometimes viewed as undesirable or a wasteland.
In the SW part of Arkansas, the Red & Oauchita rivers also served as migration routes. Flatboat- rafltlike boat used for floating downstream. Keelboat- boat with a rounded bottom and keel to keep it going straight. To go upstream had to be pulled by men/horses or pushed along with poles.
Southwest Trail ran from se Missouri through central AR and on to the Red River settlements to Texas.
Fugitive- outlaws on the run from justice. Why would they choose AR? They were fairly sure no sheriff was going to find them in its wilderness. However, there were probably never as many outlaws in AR as some of the stories and legends claimed.
Most of the rest were scattered along the Mississippi River. (Helena and W. Memphis) If you were one of those settlers along the Mississippi River… Why would you chose to settle there? Water source, food source, trade and travel, other settlers.
Although the hunter’s family may have a garden they did not think of themselves as farmers.
They also hunted deer, elk, beavers, wildcats, wolves, and huge flocks of passenger pigeons (breed of bird in N.America that became extinct in the 1800s from excessive hunting).
Cotton was most common in AR River Valley and along the Miss. River in the SE … the rivers allowed for easy transport to the markets in New Orleans.
Many small farms would also grow some vegetables and fruit trees for the family’s use If given the choice would you be a Farmer or a Hunter? Why?
None of these became important crops in the early years because each of them required a skill or market that had not yet been developed in AR.
Arkansans suspected some connections between the weather and disease. This was before knowledge of germs and insect-borne diseases. Malaria- mosquito borne chronic illness characterized by chills and fever. Yellow fever- a lethal mosquito-borne disease that swept through the South periodically during the 1800s.
Malaria was always present but yellow fever swept through like epidemics.
Ch. 7 sec. 3 life in the new land
Life in the Rugged New Land CH. 7 section 3
Question B <ul><li>Put Yourself in President Jefferson’s position at the time of the Louisiana Purchase. Would you purchase the land? Why or Why not? </li></ul>
1. <ul><li>In the early years of the nineteenth century (the 1800’s), settlement was slow because AR was hard to reach and not on the way to anywhere. Americans moving westward tended to move directly west, going to land that would grow the same crops as the land they had left behind. </li></ul>
2. <ul><li>Overland travel was very difficult for wagons carrying household goods, so the AR river was the major avenue into AR. People traveled on the rivers by canoe, flatboat , or keelboat. </li></ul>
3. <ul><li>On land, travelers either walked or rode horseback. The Southwest Trail, an old indian path, which was no more than a path through the forest. After Arkansas became apart of the U.S. the Southwest Trail was the first “road” to be chosen by the national government for improvement. </li></ul>
4. <ul><li>The remote position of AR helped it become known as a haven for people who wanted to become “lost.” Stories spread that a lot of the early settlers in AR were men who had gotten in trouble with the law. They were most likely fugitives. </li></ul>
5. <ul><li>Early Settlements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1810, a special census, was taken there were a little more than 1,000 people in AR, not including the Indians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¾’s of them lived in the AR River Valley, including villages at AR Post, Pine Bluff, Little Rock, Crystal Hill, and Cadron. </li></ul></ul>
6. <ul><li>Early Settlements continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In these early years , there were 2 different types of settlers, the hunters and the farmers. The hunters lived in more of the isolated areas. They hunted and trapped for animal skins and traded with the Indians. </li></ul></ul>
7. <ul><ul><li>Early Settlements continued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arkansas was rich in animal life. There were herds of American bison , which the settlers called buffalos. However, mass hunting and the clearing of land for farming thinned out the bison. </li></ul></ul>
8. <ul><li>Early Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AR had fertile land, a long growing season, and plenty of rainfall to water the crops. Most parts of AR had soil and climate conditions that were suitable for growing cotton, corn, or wheat. </li></ul></ul>
9. <ul><ul><li>Wheat, which was milled into flour, was generally grown and used locally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn provided food for the family and its horses, cows, and pigs. </li></ul></ul>
10. <ul><li>Early Agriculture continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some early Arkansans also planted rice, tobacco, hemp (for rope), indigo (for a blue dye), and grapes (for wine). </li></ul></ul>
11. <ul><li>One of Arkansas’s early problems was being known as an unhealthy place to live. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy rainfall and frequent floods left large areas of standing water. Standing water is a breeding ground for malaria and yellow fever . </li></ul>
12. <ul><li>The settlers frequently complained about ague or bilious fever , or the “ chills and fevers” which are all names for the malaria or the flu. </li></ul>