Nutrients:Ingestion to  EnergyMetabolism Chapter 2
What happens to nutrients after they are              ingested?• Two types of digestion  – Mechanical: includes chewing, p...
Digestion: Anatomy and Functions of the            Digestive SystemMouth to anus is 25 ft!•   Mouth (oral cavity)•   Esoph...
Digestion: Salivary Glands• Salivary glands   – See figure to right• Secrete saliva   – Moistens food   – Contains enzymes
Digestion: Stomach• Muscular organ• Primary function:  digestion• Major secretions   – Hydrochloric acid     to unravel pr...
Digestion and Absorption:               Small Intestine• Duodenum   – Majority of digestion     occurs here• Jejunum   – L...
Absorption: Surface of Small Intestine•   Convoluted interior•   Villi•   Microvilli•   Result: Increased    surface area ...
Absorption: Large Intestine• Colon   – Ascending   – Transverse   – Descending• Rectum• Anus• Some absorption   – Water   ...
Absorption: Mechanisms•   Passive diffusion – move from high to low    concenration•   Facilitated diffusion- move from hi...
Absorption: Mechanisms  •   Passive diffusion  •   Facilitated diffusion  •   Active transport  •   Endocytosis
Absorption of Nutrients                 Review this figure                 to see where along                 the GI tract...
Carbohydrates: Digestion• Mouth   – Mastication     (chewing)   – Amylase• Stomach   – Churning   – Acid• Small intestine ...
Carbohydrates: Absorption• Most absorption occurs  in small intestine• Mechanisms   – Facilitated diffusion      • Fructos...
Carbohydrates: After Absorption• Transport via blood• Cellular uptake   – Insulin   – Glucose transporters• Fates   – Stor...
Fats: Digestion• Mouth   – Mastication   – Lingual lipase        [Insert Fig. 2.12 here]• Stomach   – Gastric lipase• Smal...
Fats: Absorption• Occurs in small intestine• Mechanism   – Passive diffusion• Very little fat makes it to  large intestine...
Fats: After Absorption• Transport   – Lymph      • Chylomicrons   – Blood• Cellular uptake   – Lipoprotein lipase• Fates  ...
Proteins: Digestion• Mouth   • Mastication• Stomach   • Churning   • Acid Denaturation: acid unravels proteins so     pept...
Proteins: Absorption• Occurs in small intestine• Mechanism  – Facilitated diffusion  – Active transport• Very little makes...
Proteins: Absorption     AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION               CAUTION•   Carrier proteins are responsible for facilita...
Proteins: After Absorption•   Transport     – Blood•   Become part of amino acid pool•   Fates     – Body proteins such as...
Cellular Protein Synthesis• Transcription   – DNA   – mRNA• Translation   – Transfer RNA   – Amino acids
Vitamins, Minerals, and Water• Digestion causes release from foods• Absorption occurs in small and large intestines
What is energy?• It is the entity that  enables our bodies to  perform work.• It has no shape.• It has no physical mass.• ...
What is the body’s source of energy?• Macronutrients   – Carbohydrates   – Fats   – Proteins• Body’s direct energy  source...
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)• Body’s energy source• Two high-energy  bonds• Other phosphates   – ADP   – AMP
Cell Structure and Organelles Necessary          for ATP Production
What are the three energy systems?• Phosphagen System• Anaerobic Energy System• Aerobic Energy System
Comparison of the Three Energy Systems
Metabolic Pathways
Energy Nutrients
Cellular ATP Production: The Metabolic Factory
Phosphagen Energy System• Stores of high-energy  phosphates   – ATP   – Creatine phosphate     (CP)• Also known as:   – Im...
Anaerobic Energy System• Involves only  carbohydrates• Does not require oxygen• Also known as:   – Anaerobic glycolysis
Aerobic Energy System• Involves all  macronutrients• Requires oxygen• Also known as:   – Oxidative system
Energy System Contributions to       Activities of Varying IntensityThe small storage poolof ATP is the source ofenergy wh...
Energy System Contributions to       Activities of Varying IntensityDuring short bursts ofintense activity (i.e.,100m run)...
Energy System Contributions to       Activities of Varying IntensityDuring longer lastingsprint activities of lowerintensi...
Energy System Contributions to        Activities of Varying IntensityDuring longer lastingactivities of even lowerintensit...
Energy System Contributions to       Activities of Varying IntensityDuring long lastingactivities of lowintensity (i.e., a...
Summary:  The Energy Systems WorkTogether to Meet ATP Demand
How does carbohydrate intake impact         protein metabolism?• Carbohydrates are an  important energy  source.• Low CHO ...
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Sports Nutrition_Chapter 2_Nutrients

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Sports Nutrition_Chapter 2_Nutrients

  1. 1. Nutrients:Ingestion to EnergyMetabolism Chapter 2
  2. 2. What happens to nutrients after they are ingested?• Two types of digestion – Mechanical: includes chewing, peristalsis – Chemical: includes digestion enzymes• Absorption• Transport• Assimilation and/or energy production
  3. 3. Digestion: Anatomy and Functions of the Digestive SystemMouth to anus is 25 ft!• Mouth (oral cavity)• Esophagus• Stomach• Small intestine• Large intestine• Rectum
  4. 4. Digestion: Salivary Glands• Salivary glands – See figure to right• Secrete saliva – Moistens food – Contains enzymes
  5. 5. Digestion: Stomach• Muscular organ• Primary function: digestion• Major secretions – Hydrochloric acid to unravel proteins – Mucus to protect stomach tissue from acid. – Digestive enzymes
  6. 6. Digestion and Absorption: Small Intestine• Duodenum – Majority of digestion occurs here• Jejunum – Little digestion – Absorption• Ileum – Absorption
  7. 7. Absorption: Surface of Small Intestine• Convoluted interior• Villi• Microvilli• Result: Increased surface area for absorption
  8. 8. Absorption: Large Intestine• Colon – Ascending – Transverse – Descending• Rectum• Anus• Some absorption – Water – Sodium – Chloride – Potassium – Vitamin K
  9. 9. Absorption: Mechanisms• Passive diffusion – move from high to low concenration• Facilitated diffusion- move from high to low concentration carried by protein carrier.• Active transport – Concentration gradient not a factor.• Endocytosis
  10. 10. Absorption: Mechanisms • Passive diffusion • Facilitated diffusion • Active transport • Endocytosis
  11. 11. Absorption of Nutrients Review this figure to see where along the GI tract individual nutrients are absorbed.
  12. 12. Carbohydrates: Digestion• Mouth – Mastication (chewing) – Amylase• Stomach – Churning – Acid• Small intestine – Sugar enzymes• Large intestine – Bacteria
  13. 13. Carbohydrates: Absorption• Most absorption occurs in small intestine• Mechanisms – Facilitated diffusion • Fructose – Active transport • Glucose • Galactose
  14. 14. Carbohydrates: After Absorption• Transport via blood• Cellular uptake – Insulin – Glucose transporters• Fates – Storage in liver or muscles as glycogen. – Conversion to adipose tissue (fat). – Energy
  15. 15. Fats: Digestion• Mouth – Mastication – Lingual lipase [Insert Fig. 2.12 here]• Stomach – Gastric lipase• Small intestines – Bile – Pancreatic lipase – Micelle formation
  16. 16. Fats: Absorption• Occurs in small intestine• Mechanism – Passive diffusion• Very little fat makes it to large intestine – Steatorrhea – Crohn’s disease – Cystic fibrosis
  17. 17. Fats: After Absorption• Transport – Lymph • Chylomicrons – Blood• Cellular uptake – Lipoprotein lipase• Fates – Storage – Energy
  18. 18. Proteins: Digestion• Mouth • Mastication• Stomach • Churning • Acid Denaturation: acid unravels proteins so peptide bonds can be cleaved by enzymes. Very important function of the stomach.• Small intestine • Proteases • Peptidases
  19. 19. Proteins: Absorption• Occurs in small intestine• Mechanism – Facilitated diffusion – Active transport• Very little makes it to large intestine
  20. 20. Proteins: Absorption AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION CAUTION• Carrier proteins are responsible for facilitating absorption of amino acids.• Similar amino acids share the same active transport systems and protein carriers.• Taking amino acid supplements containing large amounts of single amino acids can affect the absorption of other amino acids if they share the same transport carrier.• If an athlete takes a large amount of a single amino acid this may result in overabsorption of that amino acid at the expense of another amino acid.
  21. 21. Proteins: After Absorption• Transport – Blood• Become part of amino acid pool• Fates – Body proteins such as muscle, enzymes, hormones. – Conversion to body fat. – Energy : Used for energy only when carbohydrate is not available fuel source. Not preferred fuel source as it has more important and essential roles in body.
  22. 22. Cellular Protein Synthesis• Transcription – DNA – mRNA• Translation – Transfer RNA – Amino acids
  23. 23. Vitamins, Minerals, and Water• Digestion causes release from foods• Absorption occurs in small and large intestines
  24. 24. What is energy?• It is the entity that enables our bodies to perform work.• It has no shape.• It has no physical mass.• Our bodies rely on chemical energy. Photo © Photodisc
  25. 25. What is the body’s source of energy?• Macronutrients – Carbohydrates – Fats – Proteins• Body’s direct energy source – Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  26. 26. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)• Body’s energy source• Two high-energy bonds• Other phosphates – ADP – AMP
  27. 27. Cell Structure and Organelles Necessary for ATP Production
  28. 28. What are the three energy systems?• Phosphagen System• Anaerobic Energy System• Aerobic Energy System
  29. 29. Comparison of the Three Energy Systems
  30. 30. Metabolic Pathways
  31. 31. Energy Nutrients
  32. 32. Cellular ATP Production: The Metabolic Factory
  33. 33. Phosphagen Energy System• Stores of high-energy phosphates – ATP – Creatine phosphate (CP)• Also known as: – Immediate energy system – ATP-CP system
  34. 34. Anaerobic Energy System• Involves only carbohydrates• Does not require oxygen• Also known as: – Anaerobic glycolysis
  35. 35. Aerobic Energy System• Involves all macronutrients• Requires oxygen• Also known as: – Oxidative system
  36. 36. Energy System Contributions to Activities of Varying IntensityThe small storage poolof ATP is the source ofenergy wheneverinstantaneous energy isneeded.
  37. 37. Energy System Contributions to Activities of Varying IntensityDuring short bursts ofintense activity (i.e.,100m run), thephosphagen system isthe main energy systemthat supplies the ATPpool.
  38. 38. Energy System Contributions to Activities of Varying IntensityDuring longer lastingsprint activities of lowerintensity (i.e., 800mrun), the main supplieris the anaerobic systemwith help from thephosphagen and aerobicsystems.
  39. 39. Energy System Contributions to Activities of Varying IntensityDuring longer lastingactivities of even lowerintensity (i.e., mile run),the main supplierbecomes the aerobicsystem with help fromthe anaerobic system.
  40. 40. Energy System Contributions to Activities of Varying IntensityDuring long lastingactivities of lowintensity (i.e., anysustainable activity), themain supplier becomesthe aerobic system withminimal help from theother systems.
  41. 41. Summary: The Energy Systems WorkTogether to Meet ATP Demand
  42. 42. How does carbohydrate intake impact protein metabolism?• Carbohydrates are an important energy source.• Low CHO results in muscle protein breakdown.• Gluconeogenesis.

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