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- 1. GPS Based Device for Navigation<br /> By- SujayCharania(07EC002)<br />KevalThakker(07EC043)<br />Guided by- Assi. Prof. Hardik Bhatt<br />Head of EC Dept.<br />1<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 2. Why this project?<br />Understand GPS hardware, Interface microcontroller circuit & associated software.<br />Keen interest in the field of Satellite Network technology.<br />Handy technology which can be used for human welfare.<br />Implement the Satellite network technology for common use.<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />2<br />
- 3. Contents:<br /><ul><li>Definition
- 4. GPS Basics
- 5. Trilateration
- 6. Block diagram
- 7. Circuit diagram
- 8. Working
- 9. GPS – Made better
- 10. Real time applications
- 11. Future scopes</li></ul>3<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 12. Definition:<br /><ul><li>The device is the circuit that uses the Global Positioning System to determine the precise location of itself.
- 13. It can determine the location of a vehicle (trains, trucks, cars etc.) to which it is attached and deliver the exact position of the same at regular predefined time intervals.</li></ul>4<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 14. GPS Basics<br />Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite based navigation and position determination service.<br />The U.S. military developed and implemented this satellite network as a military navigation system, but later made the network available for general public. <br />It is a constellation of 27 Earth-orbiting Satellites (24 in operation and three spare in case one fails).<br />Photo courtesy U.S. Department of Defense<br />The GPS satellite constellation<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />5<br />
- 15. (cntd…) GPS Basics<br />Each of these solar powered satellites(MEO satellites) encircles the globe at about 12,000 miles (19,300 km), making two complete rotations every day. <br />The satellites of GPS system utilises 6 orbits separated by 60° with 4 satellites in each orbit. The inclination of each orbit is 55°.<br />The orbits are arranged such that, at any time anywhere on Earth, there are at least four satellites "visible" in the sky.<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />6<br />
- 16. (cntd…) GPS Basics<br />Each satellite transmits its own positional information in L band (1 – 2 GHz). <br />A GPS receiver's job is to locate four or more of these satellites, figure out the distance to each, and use received information to determine its own location. <br />This facility is provided free of cost. That means once the receiver is purchased, the technology is free to use.<br />The operation of determining / calculating of its own position is based on a simple mathematical principle called trilateration.<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />7<br />
- 17. How GPS works? <br />Step 4 :<br />Once one know distance to a satellite, then he/she needs to know where the satellite is in the space.<br />Step 3 :<br />To measure travel time, GPS needs very accurate clocks.<br />Step 5 : <br />As the GPS signal travels through the Earth’s atmosphere, it gets delayed.<br />Step 2 :<br />To triangulate, GPS measures distance using the travel time of<br />a radio message.<br />Step 1 :Triangulation from satellites is the basis of the GPS system.<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />8<br />
- 18. Measurements of distance:how it works<br />Distance measurement<br />12,000 mi<br />end: 0.06 s <br />start: 0.00 s<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />9<br />
- 19. 2-D Trilateration<br />Geometric Principle: <br />You can find one location if you know its distance from other, already-known locations. <br />30 Km<br />Ahmedabad<br />GIT can be anywhere on the - - circle<br />centered at Ahmedabad. <br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />10<br />
- 20. 2-D Trilateration<br />15 Km<br />Kalol<br />30 Km<br />Ahmedabad<br />GIT can be either at one of two intersection points. <br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />11<br />
- 21. 2-D Trilateration<br />15 Km<br />Kalol<br />30 Km<br />Ahmedabad<br />Confirmed location of GIT at intersection of 3 circles.<br />1 Km<br />Khatraj<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />12<br />
- 22. Trilateration<br />Given 1 satellite … <br />13<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 23. …Trilateration<br />We can locate our position on the surface of a sphere<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology- ECE 2011<br />14<br />
- 24. …Trilateration<br />Given 2 satellites … <br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />15<br />
- 25. …Trilateration<br />Given 2 satellites … <br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />16<br />
- 26. …Trilateration<br />We can locate our position on the intersection of 2 spheres (i.e. a circle)<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />17<br />
- 27. …Trilateration<br />Given 3 satellites … <br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />18<br />
- 28. …Trilateration<br />We can locate our position on the intersection of 3 spheres (i.e. 2 points)<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />19<br />
- 29. …Trilateration<br />Given 4 satellites we can locate our position on the intersection of 4 spheres (i.e. 1 point)<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />20<br />
- 30. …Trilateration<br />The point should be located on the earth’s surface<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />21<br />
- 31. …Trilateration<br />The precise location is determined.<br />Giving variables like Longitude, Altitude, Height and Time, etc.<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />22<br />
- 32. 3-D Trilateration<br />1 Satellite<br />2 Satellites<br />3 Satellites<br />23<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 33. How much ACCURACY we can get ???<br />24<br />This is not as simple as it looks !!! <br />The question arises here is :<br /> “How much the measurement accuracy ??? “ <br /><ul><li>100 meters : ???
- 34. 15 meters : ???
- 35. 5 meters : ???
- 36. 3 meters : ???</li></ul>Is it ?<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 37. Block Diagram:<br />GPS Module<br />Regulated Power Supply<br />LCD Display<br />Memory<br />Keypad<br />Micro-Controller<br /> unit<br />25<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 38. GPS MODULE:<br />TOP VIEW<br />BOTTOMVIEW<br />26<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 39. Circuit Diagram:<br />27<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 40. Working:<br />The GPS equipment can be for on-line tracking or off-line tracking.<br />It can be of “Logger” or “Pusher” or ”Puller” type.<br />Suitable operating mode of GPS will be selected. <br />The GPS module receives the information<br />28<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 41. Continued..<br /><ul><li>Passes it to the controller unit at regular intervals.
- 42. The controller extracts the required information and makes a packet out of it that consists of geographical data and other information.
- 43. This data, being in coded form, is converted in the human understandable form.</li></ul>29<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 44. Continued..<br />The coded form is nothing but the latitude, longitude, azimuth, elevation, Tilt, etc., wise location description of the vehicle being tracked, as per the selected mode.<br />The controller will decode the information available from GPS module.<br />At the end user gets the information by interfacing the GPS device to the PC or can display it on the LCD connected along with.<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />30<br />
- 45. FRAMES FROM SATELLITES<br />In GGA mode the data packet received is as follows(format ,example):<br /><ul><li>$GPGGA,hhmmss.sss,ddmm,mmmm,a,dddmm.mmmm,a,x,xx,x.x,M,x.x,M,x.x,xxxx*hh <CR><LF>
- 46. $GPGGA,035238.000,2307.1219,N,12016.4423,E,1,9,0.89,23.6,M,17.8,M,,*69
- 47. By extracting UTC , Longitude, and latitude one can have the exact position of himself.</li></ul>31<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 48. GPS - MADE BETTER:<br />Differential GPS is a technique that allows overcoming the effects of environmental errors and SA in the GPS signals to produce highly accurate position fix.<br />This consists of a number of ground reference stations that monitor GPS satellite data.<br />Master stations collect data from reference stations and creates a GPS correction message.<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />32<br />
- 49. Continued..<br />The corrected differential message is then broadcast through one of the two geostationary satellites<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />33<br />
- 50. Continued..<br />Development of satellite-based differential systems by various governments.<br />These systems can give a position accuracy 5 times better, 95% of the time.<br />Countries using such technologies:<br /><ul><li>WAAS U.S.A.
- 51. EGNOS Europe
- 52. MTSAT Japan
- 53. GAGAN India</li></ul>Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />34<br />
- 54. Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />35<br />
- 55. POSSIBLE UPGRADATIONS:<br />This on-line tracker can be upgraded to a real time off-line “Logger” type equipment by adding some external memory unit.<br />It can also be transformed into a partial off-line “Puller” type or an advanced on-line “Pusher” type device by allow it to communicate with the controller.<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />36<br />
- 56. APPLICATION OF GPS<br /><ul><li>Science and research
- 57. Commerce and industry
- 58. Agriculture and forestry
- 59. Tourism/sport Military
- 60. Time measurement
- 61. Tracking of any object
- 62. Survey of land
- 63. Communications</li></ul> Technology<br />37<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 64. Real Time Application:<br />Currently used in :<br /><ul><li>Navigation series mobile</li></ul> phones/accessories<br /><ul><li>“MANAN CABs in</li></ul>Ahmedabad.”<br /><ul><li>Study the locomotion</li></ul>of some animal/bird.<br /><ul><li>Universal clock.</li></ul>38<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 65. Future scopes:<br /><ul><li>Major domestic bus</li></ul>travelling companies.<br /><ul><li>108 Ambulance</li></ul>(Emergency services)<br /><ul><li>High way security</li></ul>Projects.<br /><ul><li>Personal following.
- 66. Pet tracking.
- 67. Many more…</li></ul>39<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />
- 68. That’s all<br />THANK YOU.!! <br />QURIES.??<br />(If Any)<br />40<br />Gandhinagar Institute of Technology - ECE 2011<br />

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