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Scientific method notes & quiz


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Scientific method notes & quiz

  1. 1. Science Fair
  2. 2. What is a science fair project? <ul><li>A science project is an investigation using the scientific method to discover the answer to a scientific problem. </li></ul><ul><li>A science project is like a mystery in which you are the detective searching for answers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is the Scientific Method? <ul><li>The scientific method is the &quot;tool&quot; that scientists use to find the answers to questions. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the process of thinking through the possible solutions to a problem and testing each possibility to find the best solution. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Scientific Method includes: <ul><li>Researching a question, </li></ul><ul><li>Stating a problem, </li></ul><ul><li>Forming a hypothesis, </li></ul><ul><li>Creating an experiment to test your hypothesis, and </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching a conclusion. </li></ul>Let’s look closer at each part of the scientific method!
  5. 5. RESEARCH <ul><li>TOPIC RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>Your first research is used to select a project topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect ideas from your surroundings, from favorite science topics, and from your own experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>After you have selected a topic, you begin what is called project research. </li></ul><ul><li>This is research to help you understand the topic, express a problem, propose a hypothesis, and design one or more project experiments—experiments designed to test the hypothesis. </li></ul>
  6. 6. STATE THE PROBLEM <ul><li>The problem is the scientific question to be solved. </li></ul><ul><li>It is best expressed as an &quot;open-ended&quot; question, which is a question that is answered with a statement, not just a yes or a no. </li></ul>Ex. &quot;How does light affect the reproduction of bread mold on white bread?“
  7. 7. Guidelines for Stating the Problem: <ul><li>DO Limit Your Problem. </li></ul><ul><li>This question is about one life process of molds—reproduction; one type of mold—bread mold; one type of bread—white bread; and one factor that affects its growth—light. </li></ul><ul><li>To find the answer to a question such as &quot;How does light affect molds?&quot; would require that you test different life processes and an many types of molds. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Guideline for Stating the Problem: <ul><li>Do choose a problem that can be solved experimentally. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, the question &quot;What is a mold?&quot; can be answered by finding the definition of the word mold in the dictionary. </li></ul><ul><li>But, &quot;At room temperature, what is the growth rate of bread mold on white bread?&quot; is a question that can be answered by experimentation. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Forming a Hypothesis <ul><li>A hypothesis is an idea about the solution to a problem, based on knowledge and research. </li></ul><ul><li>All of your project experimenting will be performed to test the hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>The hypothesis should make a claim about how two factors relate. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Example Hypothesis <ul><li>&quot;I believe that bread mold does not need light for reproduction on white bread. I base my hypothesis on these facts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms with chlorophyll need light to survive. Molds do not have chlorophyll. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In my exploratory experiment, bread mold grew on white bread kept in a dark bread box.&quot; </li></ul></ul>For this example, the two relating factors are light and bread mold growth.
  11. 11. Guidelines for a Hypothesis <ul><li>Do state facts from past experiences or observations on which you base your hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Do write down your hypothesis before beginning the project experimentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't change your hypothesis even if experimentation does not support it. If time permits, repeat or redesign the experiment to confirm your results. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Project Experiment <ul><li>The purpose of the experiment is to test your hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>The things that have an effect on the experiment are called variables . </li></ul><ul><li>There are three kinds of variables that you need to identify in your experiments: independent, dependent, and controlled. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Variables in an Experiment <ul><li>The independent variable is the variable you purposely change. </li></ul><ul><li>The dependent variable is the variable that is being observed, which changes in response to the independent variable. </li></ul><ul><li>The variables that are not changed are called controlled variables . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Example Project Experiment <ul><li>The problem is the effect of light on the reproduction of bread mold. </li></ul><ul><li>The independent variable for the experiment is light. </li></ul><ul><li>The dependent variable is bread mold reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that are identical in both the experimental setup and the control setup are the controlled variables . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Procedure <ul><li>The procedure is the step-by-step directions on how you did your experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>The directions must be specific enough that another person could repeat your experiment. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Example Procedure <ul><li>Place 3 or 4 loaves of white bread in cardboard boxes the size of a bread box, one loaf per box. </li></ul><ul><li>Close the boxes so that they receive no light. </li></ul><ul><li>If, at the end of a set time period, the mold grows, you might decide that no light was needed for mold reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>To test if mold grows with light place an equal number of loaves in comparable-size boxes, but leave them open. </li></ul><ul><li>To measure the amount of mold growth, you might draw 1-cm squares on a transparent sheet of plastic. </li></ul><ul><li>Place the plastic over each loaf of bread, and count the number of squares with mold growth. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Guidelines for the Experiment <ul><li>Do have only one independent variable during an experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Do repeat the experiment more than once to verify your results. </li></ul><ul><li>Do have a control. </li></ul><ul><li>Do have more than one control, with each being identical. </li></ul><ul><li>Do organize data. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>The project conclusion is a summary of the results of the project experimentation and, </li></ul><ul><li>A statement of how the results relate to the hypothesis. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Guidelines for Writing a Conclusion <ul><li>Don't change your hypothesis if your results did not support it. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't leave out experimental results that do not support your hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Do give possible reasons for the difference between your hypothesis and the experimental results. </li></ul><ul><li>Do give ways that you can experiment further to find a solution. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Scientific Method Quiz
  21. 21. True or False? <ul><li>1. All science projects start with a testable question that you already know the answer to. </li></ul>
  22. 22. True or False? <ul><li>2. State your topic as an “open-ended” question, and not one that can be answered with a yes or no. </li></ul>
  23. 23. True or False? <ul><li>3. Project research will help you narrow down your question. </li></ul>
  24. 24. True or False? 4. Try not to look at too many resources for information on your topic since it might confuse you.
  25. 25. True or False? 5. A hypothesis is any factor that can change in an experiment.
  26. 26. True or False? <ul><li>6. Plan an experiment that will prove your hypothesis wrong. </li></ul>
  27. 27. True or False? 7. Make sure to test many different variables in your experiment.
  28. 28. True or False? <ul><li>8. When recording measurements, use your best estimate and don’t bother with any special tools like rulers, scales, or stopwatches. </li></ul>
  29. 29. True or False? 9. To make the job of planning an experiment easier, gather the materials first then list each item.
  30. 30. True or False? 10. It is important to use the correct tools when collecting data.
  31. 31. True or False? 11. The more trials you do, the more you can trust the data that you collect.
  32. 32. True or False? 12. Write down the data on any old piece of paper you can find before you forget it.
  33. 33. True or False? 13. Record data on graphs so you can easily look for patterns.
  34. 34. True or False? 14. In your conclusion, compare your results with your hypothesis.
  35. 35. True or False? <ul><li>15. After you’ve written your conclusion, take a nap and never think about this topic again. </li></ul>