Black Canadians (1791-1970)<br />Presented by Kara Oak and Johanna MacGregor<br />
The Beginning of Slavery in Canada	<br />The idea of enslaving Africans was first credited to  a Catholic Priest who accom...
In 1749, African slaves were used to build the new colony of Halifax.<br />Halifax became a major centre for the Maritimes...
Following the American Revolution (1812), the British government offered freedom and land to any slave that fought for the...
The British Imperial Act<br />Slavery was officially abolished in 1833 throughout the British Empire, however, the act had...
Underground Railroad<br />The conditions of slavery in the United States was far  worse than the treatment of Blacks in Ca...
After arriving in Canada, negative Black stereotypes and racist suspicion led to the creation of discriminatory laws and p...
A Route to True Freedom and    Dignity<br />The Black communities were given three options as a way to overcome racial abu...
Amber Valley<br />African-Americans were encouraged through the media to leave the States and settle in Canada.<br />Over ...
Media’s Impact on Racism<br />Although the Black settlers were educated and experienced in farming or business (a perfect ...
From 1865 through to 1911, Black people were continuously stereotyped and discriminated against in the media.<br />Because...
A Step Up the Ladder<br />In 1911 the Laurier cabinet banned all Black immigration to Canada.  Before the ban was put into...
An Opportunity to Demonstrate Patriotism<br />Black Canadians saw the chance to enlist in the First World War as an opport...
This all-black regiment was titled the Number 2 Construction Battalion (Coloured).  The Number 2 saw no action in the war,...
The only jobs available to them were as sleeping car porters.  Many of the porters were terribly over qualified.<br />A de...
Inspiration from Martin Luther King<br /> -After the Second World War, Canada’s Black communities became unified as never ...
Immigration into Canada<br />The 1950s into the 1960s immigration criteria was based upon four racial classifications prio...
Africville (1842)<br />Africville originally consisted of sixteen single-acre lots on the shore of Bedford Basin, which at...
Police seldom came and rarely responded to calls.  The  Fire Department didn’t fight fires because of inadequate utilities...
Bulldozing Africville<br />In order for the city of Halifax to build an adjoining bridge to Dartmouth, Africville needed t...
Discussion Question:<br />   Many of us have come from small town Saskatchewan and we’ve been trying to imagine how we wou...
Black Canadians
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Black Canadians

  1. 1. Black Canadians (1791-1970)<br />Presented by Kara Oak and Johanna MacGregor<br />
  2. 2. The Beginning of Slavery in Canada <br />The idea of enslaving Africans was first credited to a Catholic Priest who accompanied Columbus on his second voyage to the new world. <br />The first African slaves arrived in 1518 in the West Indies on Portuguese ships.<br />Mattieuda Costa was the first African slave to enter Canada. <br />The first African slave to settle in Canada was a six year old Madagascar.<br />
  3. 3. In 1749, African slaves were used to build the new colony of Halifax.<br />Halifax became a major centre for the Maritimes slave trade. Slaves were auctioned off for profit.<br />
  4. 4. Following the American Revolution (1812), the British government offered freedom and land to any slave that fought for the Crown.<br />500 freed slaves were granted land in Nova Scotia. Freed Blacks were given an average of less than 20 acres of land, however, the land was rocky, swampy, or far from fresh water.<br />Blacks were treated unfairly and there lands could be taken from them, by White families, with no compensation.<br />
  5. 5. The British Imperial Act<br />Slavery was officially abolished in 1833 throughout the British Empire, however, the act had little affect on Canada, since by that time the slaves had nearly all been freed.<br />
  6. 6. Underground Railroad<br />The conditions of slavery in the United States was far worse than the treatment of Blacks in Canada.<br />In the 1830s the Pennsylvania Quakers had created an escape system using their farms and homes as checkpoints for fleeing slaves. This secret network was dubbed the Underground Railroad.<br />By 1860, the Underground Railroad had helped 60,000 African-Americans escape to Canada.<br />
  7. 7. After arriving in Canada, negative Black stereotypes and racist suspicion led to the creation of discriminatory laws and practices, which produced segregation between White and Black communities.<br />
  8. 8. A Route to True Freedom and Dignity<br />The Black communities were given three options as a way to overcome racial abuse: <br />1. Segregation (Josiah Henson)<br />2. Integration (Mary Ann Shadd)<br />3. Exile (Henry Bib)<br />- Eventually it became increasingly clear that Black Canadians saw integration as their most viable option.<br />
  9. 9. Amber Valley<br />African-Americans were encouraged through the media to leave the States and settle in Canada.<br />Over 400 people took the 2000 mile journey from Oklahoma to establish a settlement in Pine Creek, Alberta. This later became known as Amber Valley.<br />Eventually a thousand Black settlers found their way to Amber Valley, which became Canada’s largest Black community.<br />
  10. 10. Media’s Impact on Racism<br />Although the Black settlers were educated and experienced in farming or business (a perfect example of the kind of people Canada needed), they were ridiculed as stupid, lazy, dishonest, and uncivilized.<br />“It seems impossible to eradicate the original savageness, of the African blood....whenever he attains to a certain degree of independence there is the fear that he will resume the barbarous life and the fierce habits of his African ancestors.” – London Times, 1865.<br />
  11. 11. From 1865 through to 1911, Black people were continuously stereotyped and discriminated against in the media.<br />Because of these stereotypes towns advocated stepping up the ladder from segregation to exclusion.<br />An example of this exclusion, the Edmonton City Council passed a resolution completely banning Black people from the city. (1911)<br />
  12. 12. A Step Up the Ladder<br />In 1911 the Laurier cabinet banned all Black immigration to Canada. Before the ban was put into affect it was dismissed.<br />In order to keep Blacks out of Canada the Immigration Ministry medical inspectors implemented medical examinations ridiculously more stringent than those conducted on their white counterparts.<br />Climate was also used as an excuse by Immigration Officials to keep Blacks from entering Canada or obtaining their Canadian citizenship.<br />
  13. 13. An Opportunity to Demonstrate Patriotism<br />Black Canadians saw the chance to enlist in the First World War as an opportunity to demonstrate their patriotism, in hopes to earn respect and acceptance from the Canadian white community.<br />Their request to fight for the Country was denied until January, 1915. <br />Prime Minister Borden allowed Black Canadians into the armed services creating an all-black regiment, but with orders that all officers were to be white.<br />
  14. 14. This all-black regiment was titled the Number 2 Construction Battalion (Coloured). The Number 2 saw no action in the war, their job was to dig trenches, build bridges, and clear roads.<br />They were also segregated from white soldiers in barracks and supper tables.<br />The Number 2 returned to Canada in 1919 to find racism still very prevalent.<br />Systemic racism locked them out of good jobs and into menial or servile work or dead-end occupations.<br />
  15. 15. The only jobs available to them were as sleeping car porters. Many of the porters were terribly over qualified.<br />A deal was established to classify two distinct jobs: Group 2 were the porters and Group 1 was everyone else. Different pay rates and benefit packages were established for both groups. Everyone in Group 2 was forced to sign an agreement stating that he could be summarily fired and left anywhere along the line without notice or state of cause.<br />
  16. 16. Inspiration from Martin Luther King<br /> -After the Second World War, Canada’s Black communities became unified as never before. A few brave attempts to challenge the tradition and legal basis of segregation became more common.<br /><ul><li>The Supreme Court deemed all segregation laws unconstitutional. This afforded Black Canadians the legal foundation to challenge all segregation laws. Black families were inspired by Martin Luther King to tear down the walls of segregation in Canada and began to demand for equal rights when entering recreation and amusement establishments. </li></li></ul><li>Canada’s first Bill of Rights was created in 1960 under John Diefenbaker’s government. For the first time the rights of Canadian citizens including the right to be free from discrimination according to race, were written in a federal statue.<br />Discussion Question:<br />As we’ve been reading through these chapters, it has become very clear that laws were put into place, but the hearts and minds of most Canadian citizens remained unchanged and racially biased.<br />How do we change not only the actual law, but translate that law into action so that the spirit of the law is evident?<br />
  17. 17. Immigration into Canada<br />The 1950s into the 1960s immigration criteria was based upon four racial classifications prioritized according desirability. Group 1 – Britain, Australia, New Zealand, France, and the U.S. Group 2 – Germans and Dutch. Group 3 – Italians. Group 4 – was all others.<br />
  18. 18. Africville (1842)<br />Africville originally consisted of sixteen single-acre lots on the shore of Bedford Basin, which at the time was separated from Halifax by thick woods and impassable roads.<br />Africville began as a thriving community.<br />By the early 1950s, Halifax expanded to encircle Africville. Although Africville residents paid city taxes, their roads were unpaved, poorly maintained, and seldom ploughed. There were no street lights, no sewers, they forced to draw water from a central well that was 100 years old.<br />
  19. 19. Police seldom came and rarely responded to calls. The Fire Department didn’t fight fires because of inadequate utilities. Insurance companies refused to sell house insurance because of the lack of adequate fire protection.<br />As a result of years of neglect, Africville developed into three distinct parts: “main-liners”, “Around the Bend”, and “Big Town”.<br />
  20. 20. Bulldozing Africville<br />In order for the city of Halifax to build an adjoining bridge to Dartmouth, Africville needed to be relocated.<br />Residents of Africvillereceived an average of $500 for their homes. Some were even moved to a building that was scheduled to be demolished before their arrival. <br />The people of Africville were basically given no option and were told they had to leave.<br />In January 1970, Africville was gone but instead of the industrial development that was to take its place, a park was created in memory of Africville.<br />
  21. 21. Discussion Question:<br /> Many of us have come from small town Saskatchewan and we’ve been trying to imagine how we would feel if someone came in, with no warning, and bulldozed all of the town’s homes down. How do you think you would feel?<br />

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