Dr. Jagannath K. Dange
Department of Education
According to Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar
[Bombay Legislative Council Debate, 27th
July, 1927], "The University is a machinery
whereby educational facilities are provided to
all those who are intellectually capable of
using those facilities to the best advantage
but who cannot avail themselves of those
facilities for want of funds or for other handicaps
higher education has been rightly defined as the
mother of all professions.
The people in university education shape the
behaviour, minds, and the social and human
values of the student community.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru while delivering a
speech at the special convocation of the
Allahabad University on December 13, 1947 said:
"A university stands for humanism for tolerance,
for reason, for progress, for the adventure of
ideas and for the search for truth.
It stands for the onward march of the human
race towards even higher objectives.
If the universities discharge their duty
adequately, then it is well with the nation and
But if the temple of learning itself becomes a
home of narrow bigotry and petty objectives,
how then will the nation prosper or people grow
Primary objectives: such as employability,
enhancing the earning potential, seeking and
advancing knowledge and wisdom, research and
Secondary objectives: like attaining mental and
spiritual growth, engaging in quest for the
unknown, facilitating better lifestyle, and
developing scientific outlook.
Growth of Higher Education in India
At the time of independence………
we had only 20 universities and 695 colleges but
today we have 785 universities where as colleges
have increased to more than 38,000.
India's one of the major wealth is youth (18-40
years of age) which presently stands at almost 80
crore, 62% of the total population (127 crore,
male 65.6 crore and female 61.4 crore).
Indian higher education system is one of the
largest in the world.
The present ratio of student: teacher in the
country is almost 20:1, colleges having about 4,
21,000 teachers and universities 79,000.
More than 25% colleges' and almost 35%
universities' teaching positions nationwide are
Similarly, in IT, IIT, IMM etc ca. 40% faculty
positions are vacant. Out of 20 lakh students, 86%
remain to be graduates, 12% acquire maters
degree, one per cent PhD and one per cent
New Dimensions in Higher Education
Education is dynamic process which changes from
time to time.
In the present era it is very essential to know the
changes which happened in the higher education
in general and teacher education in particular.
Unless we understand the changes, it would be
difficult to consider the dimensions for the 21st
century higher education and plan for the
expectations for the century.
Hence there is a dire need to consider the new
dimensions for the higher education.
The changes which can be considered for framing
new dimensions are,
Growth in the Population,
Change in the value pattern,
new theories and methods,
change in methods of teaching,
Redressal of Inequality and
New Dimensions in Higher Education
1. Branding, Openness and academic Quality:
An educational brand is often equated
to an institution's academic reputation.
two major components:
(1) promotion of the brand and
(2) delivering on the promise of the brand.
Openness: Education Is Sharing. knowledge and
OER, Open Access (OA), Open Source and Massive Open
Online Courses (MOOCs) are regarded as forms of
Academic quality is the educational outcomes rather
than academic resource measures.
The central question of how adults learn has
occupied the attention of scholars and
practitioners since the founding of adult
education as a professional field of practice
in the 1920s.
Some eighty years later, we have no single
answer, no one theory or model of adult
learning that explains all that we know about
adult learners, the various contexts where
learning takes place, and the process of
What we do have is a mosaic(mixture,
variety) of theories, models, sets of
principles, and explanations that, combined,
compose the knowledge base of adult
Two important pieces of that mosaic are
andragogy and self-directed learning.
Lorge focused on adults’ ability to learn
rather than on the speed or rate of
learning (that is, when time pressure was
removed), adults up to age seventy did as
well as younger adults.
Today it is recognized that adults score
better on some aspects of intelligence as
they age and worse on others, resulting in a
fairly stable composite measure of
intelligence until very old age (Schaie and
In 1968, Malcolm Knowles proposed “a new
label and a new technology” of adult
learning to distinguish it from pre-adult
Andragogy is the art and science of helping
Adults desire and enact a tendency toward self-
directedness as they mature
Adults’ experiences are a rich resource for
learning. They learn more effectively through
experimental activities such as problem solving
Adults are aware of specific learning needs
generated by real life
Adults are competency-based learners who wish
to apply knowledge to immediate circumstances
A climate of mutual respect is most
important for learning: trust, support, and
caring are essential components. Learning is
pleasant and this should be emphasized.
Autonomous and self- directed
Life experiences and knowledge
Adult Education is more
effective when it is
related to learner’s real
needs and directed by
The learner is dependent
upon the instructor for all
assumes full responsibility
for what is taught and
how it is learned.
The learner is self-
The learner is responsible
for his/her own learning
characteristic of this
The learner comes to the
activity with little
experience that could be
tapped as a resource for
The experience of the
instructor is most
Learner brings a greater
volume and quality of
Adults are a rich resource
for one another
assure diversity in groups
Experience becomes the
source of self-identify
Students are told what
they have to learn in
order to advance to the
next level of mastery
Any change is likely to
trigger a readiness to
The need to know in
order to perform more
effectively in some
aspect of one’s life
Ability to assess gaps
between where one is
now and where one wants
and needs to be
Learning is a process of
Content units are
sequenced according to
the logic of the subject
Learners want to perform
a task, solve a problem,
live in a more satisfying
Learning must have
relevance to real-life
Learning is organized
situations rather than
subject matter units
Primarily motivated by
competition for grades,
and the consequences of
Internal motivators: self-
better quality of life,
Knowles revise his thinking as to whether
andragogy was just for adults and pedagogy
just for children.
Between 1970 and 1980 he moved from an
andragogy versus pedagogy position to
representing them on a continuum ranging
from teacher-directed to student-directed
It is thirty years since Knowles introduced us
to the concept of andragogy as a new way of
approaching adult education.
Much in the world has changed since that
time, and we all know that the rate of
change seems to increase every year.
Heutagogy, the study of self-determined
learning, may be viewed as a natural
progression from earlier educational
methodologies – in particular from capability
The concept of truly self-determined
learning, called heutagogy, builds on
humanistic theory and approaches to
learning described in the 1950s.
It is suggested that heutagogy is appropriate
to the needs of learners in the workplace in
the twenty-first century, particularly in the
development of individual capability.
This revolution recognizes the changed world
in which we live. A world in which:
information is readily and easily accessible;
change is so rapid that traditional methods
of training and education are totally
discipline-based knowledge is inappropriate
to prepare for living in modern communities
learning is increasingly aligned with what we
modern organizational structures require
flexible learning practices
There is a need for immediacy of learning.
As teachers we should concern ourselves with
developing the learner’s capability, not just
embedding discipline-based skills and
We should relinquish any power we deem
ourselves to have.
The National Knowledge Commission (NKC) has
observed that teachers are the single most
important element of the education system and
the country is already facing a severe shortage
of qualified and motivated teachers at different
The training of teachers is a major area of
concern at present as both pre-service and in-
service training of teachers are extremely
inadequate and poorly managed in most states.
Pre-service training needs to be improved and
differently regulated both in public and private
ICT has become an integral part of today’s
teaching learning process.
Countries across the world are using ICT in
facilitating information dissemination and
communication in all areas of education and
Effective use of technology can motivate
students, make our classes more dynamic and
interesting, and renew teacher enthusiasm as
they learn new skills and techniques. Technology
is also helping the students to understand any
abstract concepts clearly.
The integration of ICTs in teaching in general
and teacher education in particular is the need
of the day. The use of ICTs can make substantial
changes both for teaching and training mainly in
Firstly, the rich representation of information
changes learner’s perception and understanding
of the context.
Secondly, the vast distribution and easy access
to information can change relationships between
teachers and taught. ICTs can also provide
powerful support for educational innovation.
Why do we need ICT?
The face of classroom is changing. The teachers
should prepare to keep up with technology
utility in the classroom. ICT is not only an
essential tool for teachers in their day to day
work, but also offers them opportunities for
their own professional development.
In conventional teaching most of the time is
consumed for the input output and less time left
for the process. But in teaching with ICT the
input and output time is reduced and process
time is increased. When the process time is
increased, time of students’ activities,
discussion, correlation with other subjects,
brainstorming and learning etc will increase.
approaches to ICT which can be used in the classroom
1.Integrated approach: This aims at planning the use
of ICT within the subject to enhance particular
concepts and skills and improve pupils’ achievement.
This involves, Selecting the suitable ICT resources which
will contribute to the aims and objectives of the
2.Enhancement Approach: this focus on the use of an
ICT resource will enhance the existing subject matter
through some aspects of the lessons and tasks. Eg.
Using an electronic whiteboard for presenting a theory
about a topic.
3.Complementary approach: This aims at using an ICT
resource to empower the students’ learning, Eg. By
enabling them to improve their class work by taking
notes on the computer or by sending home work by
email to the teacher from home.
To effectively harness the power of the new
information and communication technologies (ICTs)
to improve learning, the following essential
conditions must be met:
Students and teachers must have sufficient access to
digital technologies and the Internet in their
classrooms, colleges, and higher education
High quality, meaningful, and culturally responsive
digital content must be available for teachers and
Teachers must have the knowledge and skills to use
the new digital tools and resources to help all
students achieve high academic standards.
1. ICT literacy
2.The effective and efficient use of ICT
hardware and software for teaching learning
3. Pedagogy based ICT use(Integration of ICT in
subject content, teaching, online support,
networking and management)
4. Adopt best innovative practices in the use of
ICT and e-learning: Explosive upcoming of ICT
Computers, Networks: Internet and the Web, mobile phone, tablets,
E-learning, and on-line learning.
Lesson plan-correction- mail,
Blogs-creation and discussion, Guidance.
Website-create and post important events-test, scores and programs,
Internet-Google free Books, articles, reports, theses, projects.
Google videos- learning theories, discussions, conference discourses.
Micro teaching skills- record and make repositories.
Mobile phone-SMS-free sms.com,way2sms.com whatsapp, hike.com,
Radio and TV lessons
E-gyankosh, e-content repositories.
IGNOU-content, NCERT, NCTE, UGC, DSERT- websites.
Virtual classroom, smartboards-whiteboards
MOOCs (Massive Open online Courses)
MOOCs are recent development that is reshaping the
trend of higher education on the web. It represents an
emerging methodology of online teaching, based on the
philosophy of connectivism. “Massive” refers to the
large number of students can be engaged in online
course, and its “Openness” is associated with software
used registration to anyone who has access to web,
open curriculum, learning resources and evaluation.
MOOC providers: USA (Coursera, EdX, Udacity),
Ireland(ALISON), Germany(iversity), Australia
open2study), Japan(schoo), FutureLearn, open
courseware, OpenUpEd, KHANACADEMY, educa,
saylor.org, MOOC2DEGREE, NovoED, Canvas network,
Neodemia, World Education University(WEU), Stanford
Online, Eliedemy, EURODL,CLASS CENTRAL, edSurge,
EFQUEL, Commonwealth of Learning, Minglebox,
E-journals: www.e-journals,org/ ,
Open education Resources for Teacher
Educators, Teachers and Learners
Geogebra, Google Earth, Hot potato, C-map, R-
campus, Mahara, Moodle and wiki-spaces,
classroom-2.0, Visual field trips, statistical tools
and web conferencing.
Reduce the hard work make to work smartly.
What we require is teacher with blend of
education principles, educational software.
Blending of Open education Resources: Open Education
Resources for Learners & learning –
creativity (hot potato,C map),
Evaluation (R-compus and mahara).
Learning management system (Moodle & wiki spaces), teachers
Managed Communication Platforms ( Classroom 2.0 & Web Quest)
Statistical Tools for data processing,
These are need to thoroughly inter-woven into our curriculum and
Technology Integrated HigherEducation:There is Technological
revolution Education. There is a quick shift from web-1 to web-2
We have initiated into Open Education, Open Course Ware, Open
Source, Open Content and Open Research. There are proposals for
Smart Classrooms are emerging, where-in; we have e-learning and
Effectiveness of mobile learning approach in the
development of Teaching skills, vocabulary and
mobile phone usage among student teachers.
The research was carried out to find the
effectiveness of learning through mobile phones
in teacher training institutes first time in India,
funded by University Grants Commission.
Experimental method was used.
Wearable devices are clothing and accessories incorporating
computer and advanced electronic technologies.
Google Glass applications are free applications built by
third-party developers. Glass also uses many existing
Google applications, such as Google Now, Google
Maps, Google+, and Gmail
A smartwatch is a computerized wristwatch with functionality that is enhanced
beyond timekeeping. While early models can perform basic tasks, such
as calculations, translations, and game-playing, modern smart watches are
effectively wearable computers. Many run mobile apps, using a mobile operating
Augmented reality (AR) is a live direct or indirect
view of a physical, real-world environment whose
elements are augmented (or supplemented) by
computer-generated sensory input such as sound,
video, graphics or GPS data.
Shifting role of the Teachers in present scenario
The information Provider:
The Role Model:
Teachers as a Facilitator:
Teacher as a Participant in the Learners Efforts:
Teacher to Find his Own Teaching Style:
Recognize Himself as a Professional:
Be Sensitivity to Student's Needs and Problems:
Google forms: Survey documents, get online response
Processed to Excel
Lime survey software: directly processed to SPSS
Commonwealth of Learning (COL) Teacher Education Online certificate
Computer assisted assessment: Hot potatos
Online assessment: ebox, myexambox
Exelearning.net- OS windows based e-lg platform to create website-
content creation and putting
Word claud OS
To create graphics (tagul software)
National Knowledge Network-500mbps free to all schools
Encourage contacts between students and
teachers; especially those students who were
unwilling to speak out in face to face classroom
Develop reciprocity and co-operation among
students for the benefit of peer learning.
Active learning techniques make learners active.
Give necessary prompt feedback.
Emphasize time on task.
Communicate high expectations.
Respect diverse talents and ways of learning.
The Stanford centre for innovations in
learning(SCIL): Effective teacher includes being
An educational system can be as good as its
Who is a teacher?
One who dares to teach and never cease to
Dr. Jagannath K. Dange
Department of Education