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Role of ICT in Higher Education


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why teachers need ICT in their Teaching and what Role of ICT is playing in Higher Education

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Role of ICT in Higher Education

  1. 1. Dr. Jagannath K. Dange Department of Education Kuvempu University Shankaraghatta Dist: Shimoga, Karnataka
  2. 2.  According to Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar [Bombay Legislative Council Debate, 27th July, 1927], "The University is a machinery whereby educational facilities are provided to all those who are intellectually capable of using those facilities to the best advantage but who cannot avail themselves of those facilities for want of funds or for other handicaps in life.  higher education has been rightly defined as the mother of all professions.  The people in university education shape the behaviour, minds, and the social and human values of the student community.
  3. 3.  Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru while delivering a speech at the special convocation of the Allahabad University on December 13, 1947 said:  "A university stands for humanism for tolerance, for reason, for progress, for the adventure of ideas and for the search for truth.  It stands for the onward march of the human race towards even higher objectives.  If the universities discharge their duty adequately, then it is well with the nation and the people.  But if the temple of learning itself becomes a home of narrow bigotry and petty objectives, how then will the nation prosper or people grow in stature?"
  4. 4. Higher Education  Primary objectives: such as employability, enhancing the earning potential, seeking and advancing knowledge and wisdom, research and experimentation.  Secondary objectives: like attaining mental and spiritual growth, engaging in quest for the unknown, facilitating better lifestyle, and developing scientific outlook.
  5. 5. Growth of Higher Education in India  At the time of independence………  we had only 20 universities and 695 colleges but  today we have 785 universities where as colleges have increased to more than 38,000.  India's one of the major wealth is youth (18-40 years of age) which presently stands at almost 80 crore, 62% of the total population (127 crore, male 65.6 crore and female 61.4 crore).  Indian higher education system is one of the largest in the world.
  6. 6.  The present ratio of student: teacher in the country is almost 20:1, colleges having about 4, 21,000 teachers and universities 79,000.  More than 25% colleges' and almost 35% universities' teaching positions nationwide are vacant.  Similarly, in IT, IIT, IMM etc ca. 40% faculty positions are vacant. Out of 20 lakh students, 86% remain to be graduates, 12% acquire maters degree, one per cent PhD and one per cent diplomas/certificates.
  7. 7. New Dimensions in Higher Education Education is dynamic process which changes from time to time. In the present era it is very essential to know the changes which happened in the higher education in general and teacher education in particular. Unless we understand the changes, it would be difficult to consider the dimensions for the 21st century higher education and plan for the expectations for the century. Hence there is a dire need to consider the new dimensions for the higher education.
  8. 8. The changes which can be considered for framing new dimensions are,  Growth in the Population,  Knowledge Expansion,  Technology Revolution,  Change in the value pattern,  new theories and methods,  change in methods of teaching,  Global competition,  Redressal of Inequality and  sustainable development.
  9. 9. New Dimensions in Higher Education 1. Branding, Openness and academic Quality: An educational brand is often equated to an institution's academic reputation. two major components: (1) promotion of the brand and (2) delivering on the promise of the brand. Openness: Education Is Sharing. knowledge and information. OER, Open Access (OA), Open Source and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are regarded as forms of openness
  10. 10. Academic quality is the educational outcomes rather than academic resource measures.
  11. 11. 2. Access, Cost and Quality
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 13  The central question of how adults learn has occupied the attention of scholars and practitioners since the founding of adult education as a professional field of practice in the 1920s.  Some eighty years later, we have no single answer, no one theory or model of adult learning that explains all that we know about adult learners, the various contexts where learning takes place, and the process of learning itself.
  14. 14. 14  What we do have is a mosaic(mixture, variety) of theories, models, sets of principles, and explanations that, combined, compose the knowledge base of adult learning.  Two important pieces of that mosaic are andragogy and self-directed learning.
  15. 15. 15  Lorge focused on adults’ ability to learn rather than on the speed or rate of learning (that is, when time pressure was removed), adults up to age seventy did as well as younger adults.  Today it is recognized that adults score better on some aspects of intelligence as they age and worse on others, resulting in a fairly stable composite measure of intelligence until very old age (Schaie and Willis, 1986).
  16. 16. 16  In 1968, Malcolm Knowles proposed “a new label and a new technology” of adult learning to distinguish it from pre-adult schooling
  17. 17. 17  Andragogy is the art and science of helping adults learn: Adults desire and enact a tendency toward self- directedness as they mature Adults’ experiences are a rich resource for learning. They learn more effectively through experimental activities such as problem solving Adults are aware of specific learning needs generated by real life Adults are competency-based learners who wish to apply knowledge to immediate circumstances  A climate of mutual respect is most important for learning: trust, support, and caring are essential components. Learning is pleasant and this should be emphasized.
  18. 18. 18  Autonomous and self- directed  Life experiences and knowledge  Goal- oriented  Relevancy- oriented  Practical  Respect
  19. 19. 19 Adult Education is more effective when it is experience centered, related to learner’s real needs and directed by learners themselves.
  20. 20. 20  The learner is dependent upon the instructor for all learning  The teacher/instructor assumes full responsibility for what is taught and how it is learned.  The teacher/instructor evaluates learning  The learner is self- directed  The learner is responsible for his/her own learning  Self-evaluation is characteristic of this approach Pedagogical Andragogical
  21. 21. 21  The learner comes to the activity with little experience that could be tapped as a resource for learning  The experience of the instructor is most influential  Learner brings a greater volume and quality of experience  Adults are a rich resource for one another  Different experiences assure diversity in groups of adults  Experience becomes the source of self-identify Pedagogical Andragogical
  22. 22. 22  Students are told what they have to learn in order to advance to the next level of mastery  Any change is likely to trigger a readiness to learn  The need to know in order to perform more effectively in some aspect of one’s life  Ability to assess gaps between where one is now and where one wants and needs to be Pedagogical Andragogical
  23. 23. 23  Learning is a process of acquiring prescribed subject matter  Content units are sequenced according to the logic of the subject matter  Learners want to perform a task, solve a problem, live in a more satisfying way  Learning must have relevance to real-life tasks  Learning is organized around life/work situations rather than subject matter units Pedagogical Andragogical
  24. 24. 24  Primarily motivated by external pressures, competition for grades, and the consequences of failure  Internal motivators: self- esteem, recognition, better quality of life, self-confidence, self- actualization Pedagogical Andragogical
  25. 25. 25  Knowles revise his thinking as to whether andragogy was just for adults and pedagogy just for children.  Between 1970 and 1980 he moved from an andragogy versus pedagogy position to representing them on a continuum ranging from teacher-directed to student-directed learning.
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. 27  It is thirty years since Knowles introduced us to the concept of andragogy as a new way of approaching adult education.  Much in the world has changed since that time, and we all know that the rate of change seems to increase every year.
  28. 28. 28  Heutagogy, the study of self-determined learning, may be viewed as a natural progression from earlier educational methodologies – in particular from capability development.
  29. 29. 29  The concept of truly self-determined learning, called heutagogy, builds on humanistic theory and approaches to learning described in the 1950s.  It is suggested that heutagogy is appropriate to the needs of learners in the workplace in the twenty-first century, particularly in the development of individual capability.
  30. 30. 30  This revolution recognizes the changed world in which we live. A world in which:  information is readily and easily accessible;  change is so rapid that traditional methods of training and education are totally inadequate;  discipline-based knowledge is inappropriate to prepare for living in modern communities and workplaces;  learning is increasingly aligned with what we do;  modern organizational structures require flexible learning practices  There is a need for immediacy of learning.
  31. 31. 31  As teachers we should concern ourselves with developing the learner’s capability, not just embedding discipline-based skills and knowledge.  We should relinquish any power we deem ourselves to have.
  32. 32.  The National Knowledge Commission (NKC) has observed that teachers are the single most important element of the education system and the country is already facing a severe shortage of qualified and motivated teachers at different levels.  The training of teachers is a major area of concern at present as both pre-service and in- service training of teachers are extremely inadequate and poorly managed in most states.  Pre-service training needs to be improved and differently regulated both in public and private institutions.
  33. 33.  ICT has become an integral part of today’s teaching learning process.  Countries across the world are using ICT in facilitating information dissemination and communication in all areas of education and training.  Effective use of technology can motivate students, make our classes more dynamic and interesting, and renew teacher enthusiasm as they learn new skills and techniques. Technology is also helping the students to understand any abstract concepts clearly.
  34. 34.  The integration of ICTs in teaching in general and teacher education in particular is the need of the day. The use of ICTs can make substantial changes both for teaching and training mainly in two ways.  Firstly, the rich representation of information changes learner’s perception and understanding of the context.  Secondly, the vast distribution and easy access to information can change relationships between teachers and taught. ICTs can also provide powerful support for educational innovation.
  35. 35.  Why do we need ICT?  The face of classroom is changing. The teachers should prepare to keep up with technology utility in the classroom. ICT is not only an essential tool for teachers in their day to day work, but also offers them opportunities for their own professional development.  In conventional teaching most of the time is consumed for the input output and less time left for the process. But in teaching with ICT the input and output time is reduced and process time is increased. When the process time is increased, time of students’ activities, discussion, correlation with other subjects, brainstorming and learning etc will increase.
  36. 36. approaches to ICT which can be used in the classroom  1.Integrated approach: This aims at planning the use of ICT within the subject to enhance particular concepts and skills and improve pupils’ achievement. This involves, Selecting the suitable ICT resources which will contribute to the aims and objectives of the curriculum.  2.Enhancement Approach: this focus on the use of an ICT resource will enhance the existing subject matter through some aspects of the lessons and tasks. Eg. Using an electronic whiteboard for presenting a theory about a topic.  3.Complementary approach: This aims at using an ICT resource to empower the students’ learning, Eg. By enabling them to improve their class work by taking notes on the computer or by sending home work by email to the teacher from home.
  37. 37. To effectively harness the power of the new information and communication technologies (ICTs) to improve learning, the following essential conditions must be met:  Students and teachers must have sufficient access to digital technologies and the Internet in their classrooms, colleges, and higher education institutions.  High quality, meaningful, and culturally responsive digital content must be available for teachers and learners.  Teachers must have the knowledge and skills to use the new digital tools and resources to help all students achieve high academic standards.
  38. 38. 1. ICT literacy 2.The effective and efficient use of ICT hardware and software for teaching learning activities. 3. Pedagogy based ICT use(Integration of ICT in subject content, teaching, online support, networking and management) 4. Adopt best innovative practices in the use of ICT.
  39. 39.  ICT and e-learning: Explosive upcoming of ICT  Computers, Networks: Internet and the Web, mobile phone, tablets,  E-learning, and on-line learning.  Lesson plan-correction- mail,  Discussion groups,  Blogs-creation and discussion, Guidance.  Website-create and post important events-test, scores and programs,  Internet-Google free Books, articles, reports, theses, projects.  Google videos- learning theories, discussions, conference discourses.  Micro teaching skills- record and make repositories.  Mobile phone-SMS-free, whatsapp,, telegram  Facebook, Tweeter ,  Radio and TV lessons  E-gyankosh, e-content repositories.  IGNOU-content, NCERT, NCTE, UGC, DSERT- websites.  Virtual classroom, smartboards-whiteboards
  40. 40.  MOOCs (Massive Open online Courses)  MOOCs are recent development that is reshaping the trend of higher education on the web. It represents an emerging methodology of online teaching, based on the philosophy of connectivism. “Massive” refers to the large number of students can be engaged in online course, and its “Openness” is associated with software used registration to anyone who has access to web, open curriculum, learning resources and evaluation.  MOOC providers: USA (Coursera, EdX, Udacity), Ireland(ALISON), Germany(iversity), Australia open2study), Japan(schoo), FutureLearn, open courseware, OpenUpEd, KHANACADEMY, educa,, MOOC2DEGREE, NovoED, Canvas network, Neodemia, World Education University(WEU), Stanford Online, Eliedemy, EURODL,CLASS CENTRAL, edSurge, EFQUEL, Commonwealth of Learning, Minglebox, Swayam etc
  41. 41.  E-journals: www.e-journals,org/ ,,  Open education Resources for Teacher Educators, Teachers and Learners  Geogebra, Google Earth, Hot potato, C-map, R- campus, Mahara, Moodle and wiki-spaces, classroom-2.0, Visual field trips, statistical tools and web conferencing.  Reduce the hard work make to work smartly.  What we require is teacher with blend of education principles, educational software.
  42. 42.  Blending of Open education Resources: Open Education Resources for Learners & learning – content (geogebra), creativity (hot potato,C map), Evaluation (R-compus and mahara). Learning management system (Moodle & wiki spaces), teachers Managed Communication Platforms ( Classroom 2.0 & Web Quest) Statistical Tools for data processing, These are need to thoroughly inter-woven into our curriculum and education system.  Technology Integrated HigherEducation:There is Technological revolution Education. There is a quick shift from web-1 to web-2 to web-3. We have initiated into Open Education, Open Course Ware, Open Source, Open Content and Open Research. There are proposals for e-higher Education. Smart Classrooms are emerging, where-in; we have e-learning and e-testing.
  43. 43.  Own Experiences:  Effectiveness of mobile learning approach in the development of Teaching skills, vocabulary and mobile phone usage among student teachers.  The research was carried out to find the effectiveness of learning through mobile phones in teacher training institutes first time in India, funded by University Grants Commission.  Experimental method was used.
  44. 44. Wearable devices are clothing and accessories incorporating computer and advanced electronic technologies.
  45. 45. Google Glass applications are free applications built by third-party developers. Glass also uses many existing Google applications, such as Google Now, Google Maps, Google+, and Gmail
  46. 46. A smartwatch is a computerized wristwatch with functionality that is enhanced beyond timekeeping. While early models can perform basic tasks, such as calculations, translations, and game-playing, modern smart watches are effectively wearable computers. Many run mobile apps, using a mobile operating system.
  47. 47.  Augmented reality (AR) is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data.
  48. 48. Shifting role of the Teachers in present scenario  Encourage Thinking:  The information Provider:  The Role Model:  Teachers as a Facilitator:  Teacher as a Participant in the Learners Efforts:  Teacher to Find his Own Teaching Style:  Recognize Himself as a Professional:  Be Sensitivity to Student's Needs and Problems:
  49. 49.  Google forms: Survey documents, get online response  Processed to Excel  Lime survey software: directly processed to SPSS  Surveymonkey-preparing surveys.  Commonwealth of Learning (COL) Teacher Education Online certificate courses.  Computer assisted assessment: Hot potatos  Online assessment: ebox, myexambox  OS windows based e-lg platform to create website- content creation and putting  Word claud OS  To create graphics (tagul software)
  50. 50. National Knowledge Network-500mbps free to all schools
  51. 51.  Encourage contacts between students and teachers; especially those students who were unwilling to speak out in face to face classroom settings.  Develop reciprocity and co-operation among students for the benefit of peer learning.  Active learning techniques make learners active.  Give necessary prompt feedback.  Emphasize time on task.  Communicate high expectations.  Respect diverse talents and ways of learning.
  52. 52. The Stanford centre for innovations in learning(SCIL): Effective teacher includes being  Concerned  Committed  Creative  Competent  An educational system can be as good as its teachers  Who is a teacher?  One who dares to teach and never cease to learn
  53. 53. Dr. Jagannath K. Dange Department of Education Kuvempu University Shankaraghatta Dist: Shimoga, Karnataka