Logical fallacies


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Logical fallacies

  1. 1. Argument from IgnorancePragmatic FallacySlippery Slope FallacyApophenia & SuperstitionIrrelevant ComparisonsFalse AnalogiesPhysical & Emotional Defined: Erroneous perception of HindrancesConfirmation Bias & the connections between Selective Thinking unrelated eventsTestimonial EvidencePersonal Biases & PrejudicesFalse Memories & ConfabulationDoublespeak JargonMeaningless Comparisons Irrationally believingAssuring Expressions that how one wearsFalse Implications their hat while watchingEmotive Content a sporting event canEvading the Issue, Red Herring influence the score.Poisoning the WellAd hominem FallacyFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or FallacyAd populum, Bandwagon FallacyEmotional AppealsAmbiguity
  2. 2. Argument from IgnorancePragmatic FallacySlippery Slope FallacyIrrelevant ComparisonsFalse AnalogiesPhysical & Emotional HindrancesConfirmation Bias & Selective ThinkingTestimonial EvidencePersonal Biases & Prejudices Defined: A logical fallacyFalse Memories & claiming something is true Confabulation because it has not beenDoublespeak Jargon proven false.Meaningless Comparisons Believing that thereAssuring ExpressionsFalse Implications must be life onEmotive Content Mars because noEvading the Issue, Red HerringPoisoning the Well one has provenAd hominem FallacyFallacy of False Dilemma, that there is not life Either/Or FallacyAd populum, Bandwagon on Mars. FallacyEmotional AppealsAmbiguity
  3. 3. Pragmatic FallacySlippery Slope FallacyIrrelevant ComparisonsFalse AnalogiesPhysical & Emotional Hindrances Defined: Making aConfirmation Bias & comparison that is Selective ThinkingTestimonial Evidence irrelevant or inappropriate.Personal Biases & PrejudicesFalse Memories & ConfabulationDoublespeak Jargon Making a claim thatMeaningless ComparisonsAssuring Expressions Printer A is better thanFalse Implications Printer B because printerEmotive ContentEvading the Issue, Red A makes better copies Herring than Printer B, whilePoisoning the WellAd hominem Fallacy ignoring the importantFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or Fallacy fact that only Printer BAd populum, Bandwagon Fallacy can also fax, copy, andEmotional Appeals scan.Ambiguity
  4. 4. Pragmatic FallacySlippery Slope FallacyFalse AnalogiesPhysical & Emotional Defined: An argument HindrancesConfirmation Bias & that assumes an Selective Thinking adverse chain of eventsTestimonial EvidencePersonal Biases & will occur, but offers no Prejudices proof.False Memories & ConfabulationDoublespeak JargonMeaningless ComparisonsAssuring Expressions Because regulatorsFalse Implications have controlledEmotive ContentEvading the Issue, Red smoking in public Herring places, their ultimatePoisoning the WellAd hominem Fallacy goal is to controlFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or Fallacy everything else in ourAd populum, Bandwagon Fallacy lives.Emotional AppealsAmbiguity
  5. 5. Pragmatic FallacyFalse AnalogiesPhysical & Emotional Defined: Making HindrancesConfirmation Bias & illogical analogies Selective ThinkingTestimonial Evidence to support thePersonal Biases & validity of a PrejudicesFalse Memories & particular claim. ConfabulationDoublespeak JargonMeaningless ComparisonsAssuring ExpressionsFalse Implications Arguing that two childrenEmotive Content sharing the sameEvading the Issue, Red Herring bedroom is wrongPoisoning the WellAd hominem Fallacy because double-cellingFallacy of False Dilemma, of criminals in a Either/Or FallacyAd populum, Bandwagon penitentiary can lead to FallacyEmotional Appeals bad behavior.Ambiguity
  6. 6. Pragmatic FallacyPhysical & Emotional Hindrances Define: Arguing something isConfirmation Bias & Selective Thinking true because “it works,” evenTestimonial Evidence though the causality betweenPersonal Biases & Prejudices this something and theFalse Memories & outcome is not demonstrated. ConfabulationDoublespeak JargonMeaningless ComparisonsAssuring ExpressionsFalse Implications After using a magneticEmotive Content belt for awhile, a womanEvading the Issue, Red Herring notices her back pain isPoisoning the WellAd hominem Fallacy less, even though thereFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or Fallacy may be a dozen otherAd populum, Bandwagon Fallacy reasons for the reducedEmotional Appeals back pain.Ambiguity
  7. 7. Physical & Emotional Defined: The process HindrancesConfirmation Bias & whereby one tends to notice Selective Thinking and look for what confirmsTestimonial EvidencePersonal Biases & one’s beliefs, and to ignore, Prejudices not look for, or undervalue theFalse Memories & relevance of what contradicts ConfabulationDoublespeak Jargon one’s beliefs.Meaningless ComparisonsAssuring ExpressionsFalse Implications If one believes that moreEmotive Content murders occur during a fullEvading the Issue, Red Herring moon, then one will tend toPoisoning the Well take notice of murders thatAd hominem Fallacy occur during a full moon andFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or Fallacy tend not to take notice ofAd populum, Bandwagon Fallacy murders that occur at otherEmotional Appeals times.Ambiguity
  8. 8. Physical & Emotional Defined: Being unaware that Hindrances our memories are often “manufactured” to fill in theTestimonial Evidence gaps in our recollection, orPersonal Biases & Prejudices that some memories of facts,False Memories & over time, can be Confabulation unconsciously replaced withDoublespeak JargonMeaningless Comparisons Police officers should not fantasy.Assuring Expressions show a photo of aFalse ImplicationsEmotive Content possible assailant to aEvading the Issue, Red Herring witness prior to a policePoisoning the Well lineup, or the actualAd hominem FallacyFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or Fallacy memory of the witnessAd populum, Bandwagon Fallacy may be unconsciouslyEmotional Appeals replaced.Ambiguity
  9. 9. Physical & Emotional Defined: We each have Hindrances personal biases and prejudices, resulting fromTestimonial Evidence our own unique lifePersonal Biases & Prejudices experiences and worldview, which make it difficult to remain objective and thinkDoublespeak JargonMeaningless Comparisons critically.Assuring ExpressionsFalse Implications Some people areEmotive Content biased against claimsEvading the Issue, Red Herring made by scientistsPoisoning the Well because theirAd hominem FallacyFallacy of False Dilemma, worldview appears too Either/Or FallacyAd populum, Bandwagon cold and impersonal. FallacyEmotional AppealsAmbiguity
  10. 10. Physical & Emotional Defined: Stress, fatigue, Hindrances drugs, and related hindrances can severelyTestimonial Evidence affect our ability to think clearly and critically.Doublespeak JargonMeaningless ComparisonsAssuring ExpressionsFalse ImplicationsEmotive ContentEvading the Issue, Red Air traffic controllers HerringPoisoning the Well often have difficultyAd hominem Fallacy making good judgmentsFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or Fallacy after long hours onAd populum, Bandwagon Fallacy duty.Emotional AppealsAmbiguity
  11. 11. Defined: Relying on the testimonies and vivid anecdotes of others to substantiate one’sTestimonial Evidence own beliefs, even though testimonies are inherently subjective, inaccurate, unreliable, biased, and occasionallyDoublespeak JargonMeaningless Comparisons fraudulent.Assuring ExpressionsFalse ImplicationsEmotive Content Dramatic stories ofEvading the Issue, Red Herring Bigfoot sightings doPoisoning the Well not prove theAd hominem FallacyFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or Fallacy existence ofAd populum, Bandwagon Fallacy Bigfoot.Emotional AppealsAmbiguity
  12. 12. Defined: A word or expression that can be understood in more than one way.Doublespeak JargonMeaningless ComparisonsAssuring ExpressionsFalse Implications From the statementEmotive Content “Lying expert testified atEvading the Issue, Red Herring trial”, is the expert a liarPoisoning the WellAd hominem Fallacy or is the person anFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or Fallacy expert on telling whenAd populum, Bandwagon Fallacy someone is lying?Emotional AppealsAmbiguity
  13. 13. Defined: Using expressions that disarm you from questioning the validity of an argument.Doublespeak JargonMeaningless ComparisonsAssuring ExpressionsFalse Implications Expressions such as “AsEmotive Content everyone knows…”, andEvading the Issue, Red Herring “Common sense tells usPoisoning the Well that…”Ad hominem FallacyFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or FallacyAd populum, Bandwagon FallacyEmotional Appeals
  14. 14. Defined: Intentionally using words to arouse feelings about a subject to bias others positively or negatively, in order to gain influence or power.Doublespeak JargonMeaningless Comparisons Naming detergents “Joy” and “Cheer” (positive), notFalse ImplicationsEmotive Content “Dreary” and “Tedious”Evading the Issue, Red (negative). The military Herring using the phrasePoisoning the WellAd hominem Fallacy “neutralizing the opposition”Fallacy of False Dilemma, (less negative) rather than Either/Or FallacyAd populum, Bandwagon “killing” (negative). FallacyEmotional Appeals
  15. 15. Defined: Language that implies that something is superior but retreats from that view.Doublespeak JargonMeaningless Comparisons An ad that claims aFalse Implications battery lasts “up to”Evading the Issue, Red Herring 30% longer, but doesPoisoning the Well not say it will last 30%Ad hominem FallacyFallacy of False Dilemma, longer, and if it did, Either/Or FallacyAd populum, Bandwagon longer than what? FallacyEmotional Appeals
  16. 16. Defined: The use of technical language to make the simple seem complex, the trivial seem profound, or the insignificant seem important, all done intentionally to impress others.Doublespeak Jargon Referring to a family asFalse Implications “a bounded plurality ofEvading the Issue, Red role-playing individuals” Herring or a homeless person asPoisoning the WellAd hominem Fallacy a “non-goal orientedFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or Fallacy member of society.”Ad populum, Bandwagon FallacyEmotional Appeals
  17. 17. Defined: Language that is clear and accurate but misleading because it suggests something false. The dairy industry cleverly expresses fat content as a percentage of weight,False Implications not of calories. ThusEvading the Issue, Red Herring 2% “low” fat milk reallyPoisoning the Well has 31% fat when fatAd hominem FallacyFallacy of False Dilemma, is measured as a Either/Or FallacyAd populum, Bandwagon percentage of calories. FallacyEmotional Appeals
  18. 18. Defined: Criticizing the person making an argument, not the argument itself. “You should not believe a word myEvading the Issue, Red opponent says. He Herring is just bitterPoisoning the WellAd hominem Fallacy because I amFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or Fallacy ahead in theAd populum, Bandwagon Fallacy polls.”Emotional Appeals
  19. 19. Defined: An appeal to the popularity of the claim as a reason for accepting the claim. Thousands of years ago the averageEvading the Issue, Red person believed that HerringPoisoning the Well the world was flatFallacy of False Dilemma, simply because Either/Or FallacyAd populum, Bandwagon most other people FallacyEmotional Appeals believed so.
  20. 20. Defined: Making irrelevant emotional appeals to accept a claim, since emotion often influences people more effectively than logical reasoning. Advertisements that appeal to one’s vanity,Evading the Issue, Red pity, guilt, fear, or desire HerringPoisoning the Well for pleasure, while providing no logicalFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or Fallacy reasons to support their product being better thanEmotional Appeals a competitor.
  21. 21. Defined: If one has been accused of wrongdoing, diverting attention to an issue irrelevant to the one at hand. Making jokes about one’s own character inEvading the Issue, Red Herring order to disarm criticsPoisoning the Well & evade having toFallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or Fallacy defend policy.
  22. 22. Defined: Intentionally restricting the number of alternatives, thereby omitting relevant alternatives from consideration. “You are eitherPoisoning the Well with us, or with the terrorists!”Fallacy of False Dilemma, Either/Or Fallacy
  23. 23. Defined: Creating a prejudicial atmosphere against the opposition, making it difficult for the opponent to be received fairly. “Anyone who supportsPoisoning the Well removing troops from Afghanistan is a traitor!”
  24. 24. Don’t fall for a logical fallacy!