Il Ptpck(2)


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    1. 1. Scaffolding the TPACK Framework for English Language Arts In-Service Teachers: New Literacies, New Minds Hiller A. Spires Professor & Senior Research Fellow Lisa Hervey & Tanya Watson Doctoral Research Assistants Friday Institute for Educational Innovation College of Education North Carolina State University
    2. 2. The Friday Institute for Educational Innovation • The research arm of the College of Education at NC State University. • Focused on 5 main areas – 21st Century Teaching and Learning – Professional and Leadership Development – Technology Infrastructure – Evaluation of Educational Innovations – Educational Policy • Explore our projects at
    3. 3. Scaffolding the TPACK Framework for English Language Arts In-Service Teachers: New Literacies, New Minds “What Knowledge is of Most Worth?” ~ Herbert Spencer As we continue into the 21st century, Spencer’s compelling question is still front and center but now in the midst of fast-paced technological changes that are prompting new literacies.
    4. 4. Research Question How does an inquiry learning project model affect TPACK development and support ELA teachers to integrate technology?
    5. 5. TPACK, Distributed Cognition, & Instructional Scaffolding: Theoretical Perspectives • Mishra and Koehler’s TPACK (2006, 2008) • Distributed Cognition (Salomon, 1993) • Vygotskian perspective (1978) of scaffolding customized support
    6. 6. TPACK (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) • PCK – Knowledge of teaching and learning principles to deliver content effectively. • TPK – Knowledge of how various technologies can be used in teaching and understanding how using technology changes the way teachers teach. • TCK – Knowledge of how technology can create new representations for specific content.
    7. 7. Participants • 20 in-service teachers • Enrolled in a graduate course on literacy, technology and media • 19 females and 1 male; 16 Caucasians, 2 African- Americans, and 2 Asian-Americans • 23 to 54 years; average age of 30 • 5 to 10 years of teaching experience
    8. 8. The Inquiry Learning Project (ILP) Model Spires, H., Wiebe, E., Young, C., Hollenbrands, K., and Lee, J. (2009).
    9. 9. Creative Synthesis -- A 21st Century Skill
    10. 10. Inquiry Learning Project (ILP) Kits
    11. 11. Method Using a mixed method research design (Creswell & Plano-Clark, 2006), data for the study was collected from three sources: 1) A teacher survey that assesses teachers’ beliefs about technology use (Park & Ertmer, 2007; Ertmer, 2005; Fang, 1996) that was administered at the beginning and end of the course.
    12. 12. Method 2) An exploratory visual representation and analogy exercise that attempted to capture changes in participants’ views of their TCPK • Synectics - From the Greek “syn” and “ektos,” and refers to the fusion of diverse ideas (Gordon, 1961; Nolan, 2003). Students formed a bridge between existing and new knowledge. • Synectics utilizes 3 metaphorical forms: direct analogy, personal analogy, and compressed conflict. • Students in our study created direct analogies between their TPACK and a self-selected visual stimulus.
    13. 13. Method 3) Teacher-generated reflections that were captured via an online forum within the course Moodle. • Data analysis focused on teachers’ responses to open-ended questions posed in weekly online forums throughout the semester. • Two researchers independently read the forum responses and targeted initial topics based on the frequency with which participants mentioned particular topics. • Topics included: evidence of scaffolding, evidence of TPCK development, shifts in teachers’ roles, shifts in teachers’ beliefs, and other.
    14. 14. Teachers’ Beliefs Regarding Technology Use Survey (TBTUS), a 54-item survey* Post-class ratings were significantly higher than pre- class ratings in two areas: 1) teachers perceived values of computers for instructional purposes, t(19) = 2.48, p = .02 2) teachers perception of their in-class technology skills, t(19) = 2.10, p = .05. *(Ertmer, 2005)
    15. 15. TPCK Analogies in Voicethread Visual Stimulus Teacher-Generated Analogies Initial Teacher-Generated Analogies Revisited I chose the image of the man on the edge of the cliff. It seems to me that he is hanging on for dear life afraid of falling. This is the way that I feel about TPCK; I am afraid to take the plunge. I’m afraid to lose control or to try something new and innovative. The cliff represents my way of teaching--content and pedagogy. Beyond the cliff’s edge there are new technologies, pedagogies, and content. The man is afraid to “let go.” As a teacher, I’m afraid of making mistakes with technology. What is that old saying? "You've come a long way baby..." Well, I know that I have come a long way during this course, when it comes to technology. Instead of "holding on for dear life," I feel like I have begun to take the plunge. If I haven't jumped right off the cliff, I have at least tested the water to see if it is hot or cold. This class has increased my TPCK knowledge by introducing me to numerous tools that I can use in my language arts classroom. Also, I have become excited about technology. After seeing my students complete their book trailer videos, I see how enthusiasm can spread from the students to me. And I found out that it is all right for the students to distribute their knowledge to me.
    16. 16. Themes from Teacher Reflections • New Attitudes: “I Can’t Turn Back Now” Now that I have new knowledge and awareness, I also carry the personal burden of determining how to use it in a meaningful way. • New Negotiations: “It’s OK Not to Know Everything” I was able to work with other teachers and professors who have experienced the tools, which privileged me with first-hand information about successes and challenges. • New Cognitions: “I Can Actually Feel My Brain Changing” Thinking about TPACK pushes me to look at the curriculum in a different light.
    17. 17. Implications Technology Use Cultivates Student Learning and Creativity By creating their own e-books about original stories, my students proved that they are highly engaged when using technology to extend their learning. My students more frequently applied emerging writing skills without support and were eager to practice rereading their work to build fluency for the audio recordings.
    18. 18. Implications Teachers Create a New Educational Future Through Innovation and Leadership I have found that my fellow teachers now are experimenting with different technology tools that I introduced to them. I have the ability to bring innovative ideas not only into my classroom but to our entire school.
    19. 19. Looking Ahead… • TPACK may be the knowledge that is of most worth to teachers as they innovate, collaborate, and lead education to a new era. • TPACK can be scaffolded for ELA teachers and, at a minimum, it represents a powerful tool for teachers as they negotiate the rich and complex landscape of new literacies with their students.
    20. 20. Stay Connected Join us at the New Literacies Colaborative (NLC) Ning at: Find our full paper at: