History of the United States: Beginnings to 1877 (Mason, Jacobs, Ludlum McDougal-Littell, 1995) ... used for 8th grade in BASD. We have two paragraphs and an image (Revere print) on p. 176Namedatelocation (customhouse)descrip of crowd (street youths and dockworkers)descrip of complaints (impressment, jobs)descrip of instigation (yelling insults, summoning others to join crowd)descrip of firing (one soldier, then others)descrip of results (5 dead or mortally wounded)ID of Attucks (Af-Am sailor and escaped slave)Sons of Libertyevent used for propaganda (e.g., name, engraving)legal action: Adams & Quincy attys for defense, 6 acquit, 2 had thumbs branded "as a penalty"
Name date connect to AmRev connect to KentState descrip of instigation (taunting, attacking by crowd of soldiers / soldiers fire back) descrip of results (5 dead, 6 injured)ID of Attucks: 1st Af-Am casualty of AmRevmention Revere engravinglegal action, results (6 acquit, 2 guilty of manslaughter; JA defense atty)
Clearly, his image or status or significance has changed over time: We know his name, his ethnicity, his occupation, we have one account saying he's an escaped slave. What else do you know? ("First to die," "martyr"). How has his image changed over time? Why has his image changed?
Let’s do some history<br />“How has our understanding of<br />Crispus Attucks changed over time?”<br /> Textbooks<br />Wikipedia<br /> Primary Source accounts <br />
Let's compare to WP article, as it was first created(History --> view earliest)> http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Boston_Massacre&oldid=20348411:02, 8 September 2002...3 other edits that same day, all in about 20 minutes from the initial draftAll edits just copy-editing, linking> http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Boston_Massacre&diff=412511&oldid=203484<br />
Initial text<br />11:02, 8 September 2002 220.127.116.11 (talk)<br />The Boston Massacre occurred 5 March 1770AD. This was one of the events that helped spark the American Revolution. In an event much like what would happen over 200 years later at Kent State, a mob of men began taunting armed soldiers. After some of the men began throwing ice at the British soldiers, eventually the soldiers fired back. In this action, 5 Americans died, including one Crispus Attucks, the first known African-American Casualty of the American Revolution. Six more were injured. The event was immortalized by an engraver named Paul Revere. In a post-massacre trial, 6 soldiers were found non-guilty, and 2 more-- the only two proven to have fired-- were found guilty of manslaughter. John Adams acted as defense attorney.<br />
Author = IP address 18.104.22.168<br />In 34 minutes from one computer this author made 13 WP contributions including the initial Boston Massacre post http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Contributions/22.214.171.124<br />ISP is CURRENTLY held by Dr. Erik N. Zeeman, MD Inc. <br />
What has happened to the Boston Massacre entry since then? <br />Current version has been greatly expanded<br />As of Sept 25, 2009: 1686 editors (http://toolserver.org/~daniel/WikiSense/Contributors.php?wikifam=.wikipedia.org&wikilang=en&order=-edit_count&page=Boston+Massacre&grouped=on&ofs=0&max=1000)<br />About 3000 edits total <br />
(How does the structure of Wikipedia help us understand the discipline of history?)<br />Focus on Crispus Attucks. He gets singled out by name in both the textbook and the first version of the Wikipedia article, as well as all of the 1657 versions that followed. <br />…was Attucks singled out in Revere's print? <br />
Text below the engraving:<br /> “Unhappy Boston! see thy Sons deplore, Thy hallowed Walks besmeared with guiltless Gore." Also listed are the "unhappy Sufferers" Saml Gray, Saml Maverick, James Caldwell, Crispus Attucks, and Patrick Carr (killed) and it is noted that there were "Six wounded; two of them (Christr Monk & John Clark) Mortally.”<br />
How did we get to such singular focus on Attucks? Why does he get all or most of the attention?<br />Wikipedia article on Crispus Attucks actually gives us a lot to go onhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crispus_Attucks<br />