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A Preliminary Analysis of How
Multimodal Content-Area Websites Align
with
Emerging Theories of New Literacies and
Technolo...
Introduction and Rationale
New information technologies are rapidly changing
the nature of literacy and learning (e.g., Co...
Theoretical frameworks**
Pedagogical reasoning (Niess, 2008) informed by a dynamic
knowledge of Technology, Pedagogy, and ...
Relevant work in this area
Graduate students: TPCK involves developing a deep
understanding of the complex relationships b...
Relevant work in this area
Technology mapping (Putnam & Borko, 1997; 2000) involves
establishing connections among the aff...
Relevant work in this area
Two additional ideas
Interactive multimodal learning environments are
rapidly emerging alongsid...
The TPCK framework
(Koehler & Mishra, 2008)
TPK
TCK
Knowledge of how to
plan lessons and design
effective learning
materials that
incorporate a range of
technologies
...
Our research questions
(First steps in exploring the territory)
1. How might we begin to characterize the range of
multipl...
Methodology
Reviewed a set of content-specific interactive
informational websites to get a sense of how key
concepts are r...
Framing questions for analysis
What kinds of content-specific representations or
phenomena does the website provide? Try t...
Findings
RQ1: How might we begin to characterize the range of
multiple sign systems and pedagogies used to
represent and t...
Level 1:
Content-Specific Informational Websites (CSI)
Level 2: CSI with Multimodal/Interactive
Features (CSI-MIF)
Level 3: CSI-MIF with Pedagogical Features
(CSI-MIF/PF)
Level 4: CSI-MIF with Pedagogical Interface
(CSI-MIF/PI)
How do these findings help us support
teachers in assessing the utility of
informational websites?
Is one level “better” t...
Phase 2: Characterizing the range of sign systems and
pedagogies used to represent & teach concepts
Coding system for rese...
Level 1: Browser Centered
Content-Specific Informational Websites
Level 4: Learner-Centered
CSI-MIF with Pedagogical Interface
Poe: The Person…
Poe: The Writer…
Summary of Findings Across Four Websites
Discussion
Several important issues for further investigation:
All 4 types of websites have educational value, but
they ra...
Implications and Next Steps
What should a new teacher be able to know and do
with these different types of online resource...
Next Steps
RQ2: How might emerging perspectives of new
literacies, multiliteracies, and TPCK be useful for
helping teacher...
Thank you
Julie Coiro and Jay Fogleman
University of Rhode Island
Symposium, AERAApril 2009, San Diego
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  1. 1. A Preliminary Analysis of How Multimodal Content-Area Websites Align with Emerging Theories of New Literacies and Technology Use in School Classrooms Julie Coiro and Jay Fogleman University of Rhode Island Symposium, AERAApril 2009, San Diego
  2. 2. Introduction and Rationale New information technologies are rapidly changing the nature of literacy and learning (e.g., Coiro, Knobel, Lankshear & Leu, 2008) Teachers must be prepared to guide and support students in learning about and with appropriate new technologies (Niess, 2008; Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008) Despite many efforts, teachers lack the skills and knowledge to teach with technology successfully or model how to learn with new technologies effectively (e.g., Koehler, Mishra, & Yahya, 2007).
  3. 3. Theoretical frameworks** Pedagogical reasoning (Niess, 2008) informed by a dynamic knowledge of Technology, Pedagogy, and Content (TPCK) (Koehler & Mishra, 2008) Multimodal perspectives of text that attend to the role of images, movement, sound, and layout (Kress & van Leeuwin, 1996; Lemke, 2002; Unsworth, 2008) Multiliteracies perspective that seeks to prepare learners as both consumers and designers of information (Cope & Kalantzis, 2000) New literacies perspective of online reading comprehension (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004) to frame the ways students actively participate in online inquiry-based informational reading and learning ** In the spirit of new literacies research (Coiro, Knobel, Lankshear & Leu, 2008), we make public our plea for patience as we begin to explore literacy across multiple theories and lines of research
  4. 4. Relevant work in this area Graduate students: TPCK involves developing a deep understanding of the complex relationships between content, pedagogy, technology, and the learning contexts in which they function (Koehler, Mishra, & Yahya, 2007). Pre-service teachers can also be taught how to: (1) recognize the affordances and constraints of particular ICTs in particular disciplines and (2) employ TPCK to transform difficult topics/concepts with technology in ways that augment conceptual understanding (Angeli & Valanides, 2009) using Technology Mapping.
  5. 5. Relevant work in this area Technology mapping (Putnam & Borko, 1997; 2000) involves establishing connections among the affordances of a tool, content, and pedagogy - but also linked to who will be using it (teacher and/or student) and for what purpose Affordances = actual and perceived properties that indicate latent action possibilities (Gibson, 1977; Norman, 1990) The outcome… Teachers gradually become more experienced in assessing the added value of computers in teaching and learning
  6. 6. Relevant work in this area Two additional ideas Interactive multimodal learning environments are rapidly emerging alongside static printed text environments (Moreno & Mayer, 2007; Unsworth, 2008) The nature of inquiry and expression is quite different in different disciplines (Polman, 1998) - implications for learners as consumers and designers New teachers can learn to recognize the types of multimodal interactivity that foster knowledge construction rather than only information acquisition (Moreno & Mayer, 2007) New teachers can learn how to map affordances and constraints of different technologies for specific pedagogical challenges faced by content area instructors (Bull, Bull, & Hammand, 2008)
  7. 7. The TPCK framework (Koehler & Mishra, 2008)
  8. 8. TPK TCK Knowledge of how to plan lessons and design effective learning materials that incorporate a range of technologies Knowledge of the affordances & constraints of each technology type relative to a content-area lesson Our focus… TPCK Which theories should help guide our pedagogical reasoning for using new technologies for teaching & learning?
  9. 9. Our research questions (First steps in exploring the territory) 1. How might we begin to characterize the range of multiple sign systems and pedagogies used to represent and teach conceptual information on existing websites within and across the disciplines? 2. How might emerging perspectives of new literacies, multiliteracies, and TPCK be useful for helping teachers: (a) assess the utility of interactive multimodal websites in their curriculum and (b) effectively capitalize on these digital resources for teaching and learning?
  10. 10. Methodology Reviewed a set of content-specific interactive informational websites to get a sense of how key concepts are represented in multiple modes and with varying levels of pedagogical support - http://www.lite.iwarp.com/CoiroIRA2008.html Developed a preliminary framework for assessing informational websites (as aspects of TCK and TPK) - In this time of rapid change, can our research methods also become a practical tool for teachers?? Used the framework to identify the presence or absence of features on four multimodal informational websites (two in science and two in language arts) Reflected on the utility of such a framework for developing teachers’TCK and TPK
  11. 11. Framing questions for analysis What kinds of content-specific representations or phenomena does the website provide? Try to characterize in a useful way for teachers What on the website engages learners with the content and how does it engage learners? What do I have to know and do as a teacher (TPCK) to make these existing websites (no matter what type and level of support) useful in my curriculum? How might we facilitate this type of knowledge among our pre-service teachers?
  12. 12. Findings RQ1: How might we begin to characterize the range of multiple sign systems and pedagogies used to represent and teach conceptual information on selected websites within and across the disciplines? Phase 1: We encountered four levels of websites Browser-Centered Content-Specific Informational websites (CSI) CSI with Multimodal/Interactive Features (CSI-MIF) Learner-Centered CSI-MIF with Pedagogical Features (CSI-MIF/PF) CSI-MIF with Pedagogical Interface (CSI-MIF/PI)
  13. 13. Level 1: Content-Specific Informational Websites (CSI)
  14. 14. Level 2: CSI with Multimodal/Interactive Features (CSI-MIF)
  15. 15. Level 3: CSI-MIF with Pedagogical Features (CSI-MIF/PF)
  16. 16. Level 4: CSI-MIF with Pedagogical Interface (CSI-MIF/PI)
  17. 17. How do these findings help us support teachers in assessing the utility of informational websites? Is one level “better” than another? Not really, but.. Each provides different affordances and constraints for representing/manipulating subject-specific concepts (TCK) Each will require teachers to provide/design different types and levels of pedagogical support (TPK) So, how might we begin to foster awareness and a language for dialogue around these elements in our pre- service methods courses?
  18. 18. Phase 2: Characterizing the range of sign systems and pedagogies used to represent & teach concepts Coding system for researchers and educators Homepage summary and 2-3 subsections of the website Informed by Lemke (2002) and Angeli & Valanides (2009)
  19. 19. Level 1: Browser Centered Content-Specific Informational Websites
  20. 20. Level 4: Learner-Centered CSI-MIF with Pedagogical Interface
  21. 21. Poe: The Person…
  22. 22. Poe: The Writer…
  23. 23. Summary of Findings Across Four Websites
  24. 24. Discussion Several important issues for further investigation: All 4 types of websites have educational value, but they raise the bar in terms of what counts as teacher knowledge and expertise. New media = new dimensions of pedagogical design Existing informational websites not always aimed at learners; teachers may need to mediate students’ experiences more aggressively • Negotiate content in multiple modalities (TCK) • Recognize levels of pedagogical support or develop their own (TPK) • Look beyond dynamic glitz to consider how website affordances enrich or complicate standards-based content area instruction (TPCK)
  25. 25. Implications and Next Steps What should a new teacher be able to know and do with these different types of online resources? What’s realistic and is it developmental? How should new teachers effectively balance online resource choices to address their content-area learning purposes? static text; multimodal representations; online inquiry opportunities How do we help new teachers integrate online resources into their teaching as part of our more traditional literacy and content-area methods courses? How to appreciate value of multimodal representations? When introduce pedagogical design capacity?
  26. 26. Next Steps RQ2: How might emerging perspectives of new literacies, multiliteracies, and TPCK be useful for helping teachers: (a) assess the utility of multimodal websites in their curriculum (b) effectively capitalize on these digital resources for teaching and learning? We are exploring a practical and useful framework for helping new teachers identify the key understandings that warrant a visit to a particular multimodal interactive website. - Multimodal representations of content (TCK) - Pedagogical knowledge (TPK) - Content knowledge of topic, comprehension strategies, and online inquiry (TPK and TCK)
  27. 27. Thank you Julie Coiro and Jay Fogleman University of Rhode Island Symposium, AERAApril 2009, San Diego

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