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5 digital divide


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* property of EDTECH 101
* University of the Philippines Diliman

Published in: Technology, Education
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5 digital divide

  1. 1. Digital Divide Pertinent Questions* Facts (global, national, educational levels) * Why important? •As educators, what can we do? Ferdinand B. Pitagan, PhD EdTech 101
  2. 2. Sharing your experience• What kind of technology do you use? (mobile phone, iPod, Wiki, Blogs, social networking, Skype, YM, etc)• For what?• How often?• What are the individual differences?
  3. 3. Digital haves - Info rich ICT Access Skills The Gap Knowledge AttitudeDigital not haves - Info poor
  4. 4. Nations Digital haves - Info rich Generations Genders Ethnic A series of groups Gaps Education Economic levelsDigital not haves - Info poorSocial status Languages
  5. 5. Digital Technologies Changes in DigitalDigital Society OpportunitiesDivide Education (Policies, Practices)
  6. 6. Digital Divide a deepening of existing forms of exclusion Unemployed, poor, housebound, disabled,less educated, minorities Women/girls
  7. 7. Internet World Statistics (2009)
  8. 8. Digital Divide at A Glance (ITU figures)less than 3 out of every 100 Africans1 out of every 2 inhabitants of the G8 countriestop 20 countries (Internet bandwidth) ---80% of all Internet users30 countries with an Internet penetration of less than 1%429 million Internet users in G8444 million Internet users in non-G8Mobile = 34% of the world’s total mobile users from G8 countries – 14% world population G8- Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the UK and the US
  9. 9. Cultural factors Social factors (gender, race, etc) Digital DivideOther factors Economic factors
  10. 10. Internet Users by Income Level of country Asahi Statistics p.189High-income : 65.5%Upper middle income : 7.8%Lower middle income : 21.5%Low-income : 5.6%
  11. 11. UCLA World Internet Project (2004) Internet Users by Gender • Britain men 63.6; women 55.0 • Germany men 50.4; women 41.7 • Hungary men 20.3; women 15.1 • Italy men 41.7; women 21.5 • Japan men 54.7; women 46.2 • Korea men 67.8; women 53.8 • Macao men 37.8; women 28.8 • Singapore men 47.2; women 34.0 • Spain men 46.4; women 27.2 • Sweden men 67.7; women 64.4 • Taiwan men 25.1; women 23.5 • United States men 73.1; women 69.0
  12. 12. Internet Users by Age Group“…86 percent of women ages 18 to 29 wereonline, compared with 80 percent of men in thesame age group.“…among the older group, those age 65 and older,34 percent of men are online, compared with 21percent of women.”USA, Washingtonpost Thursday, December 29,2005
  13. 13. Not easy to stop/lessen gapsIf we don’t do anything about it…. Need for awareness Need for strong policies Need for international collaboration Need for education
  14. 14. World Summit on the Information Society bridges_2005.pdf1. International Collaboration “UNDP etc – e Vietnamese Village” “Japan – Asian Broadband Project”2. NGOs/Public sectors “Brazil – Tele-centers”3. National Policies “Egypt – E-readiness Plan” “Korean Agency for Digital Opportunity”4. Business Involvement “Sudan – SUDATEL”
  15. 15. World Summit on the Information Society 8 Key Areas for Policy1. Access for all to HW & SW2. Changed roles of teachers/learners3. Promoting lifelong learning4. Quality assurance5. Enhanced citizenship6. Brokering services and agencies7. Support, encourage & direct research8. Change in role of policy-maker in education
  16. 16. Digital Opportunities ICT, helping to overcome some forms of exclusionDistance learning to remote areas Village tele-centers with ICT ICT in Basic Education Lifelong Learning through ICT Others
  17. 17. Digital Divide inEducation-Digital divide in investment(input)-Digital divide in ICT use(process)-Digital divide in people(output)
  18. 18. Digital Divide in Education1. Input Factors• Hardware,• Software• Materials and Resources• Connectivity• Integration of ICT in curriculum• Supports• Policies• Others
  19. 19. Digital Divide in Education2. Process FactorsDifferent approaches to ICT use - Used for advanced applications and thinking? - Used for basic skill training? - Used for computer games? - Others
  20. 20. Digital Divide in Education3. Human (Outcome) FactorsDigital literacy?- ICT skills / knowledge- confidence- competencies
  21. 21. ICT Skills (University, Perception) Source: NIME (2003) “I do not have adequate ICT skills and knowledge”- More faculty than students- More older people than younger ones- More people in humanities and socialsciences than those in natural sciences andengineering
  22. 22. Digital divide in informal learning (more learning happens outside schools) Home differences Differences at work Differences in communities