Molecular gastronomy


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Oral presentation done by students in the class "English for Chemistry" (Module II) in Servei de Llengües UAB Course 2010-2011

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Molecular gastronomy

  1. 1. MOLECULAR GASTRONOMY<br />Màrius Tarrés<br />Esther Gorrea<br />17th of March<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION, precursors <br />The discipline of food science has existed for many years<br /> Back to 18th century<br /><ul><li> Lavoisier recognized in 1783 the importance of utilizing the scientific method to understand food properties</li></ul>Brillat-Savarin<br /> 1825 – Physiology of Taste<br />Professor Belle Lowe<br />Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford (1753 - 1814) was one of the early pioneers in the science of food & cooking<br /> 1932 Experimental Cookery: From The Chemical And Physical Standpoint <br />Ex. : The Factors Affecting The Viscosity Of Cream And Ice Cream<br />Professors Evelyn G. Halliday and Isabel T. Noble<br /> 1943 Food Chemistry and Cookery<br />“The main purpose of this book is to give an understanding of the chemical principles upon which good practices in food preparation and preservation are based”<br />
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION<br /><ul><li> MOLECULAR GASTRONOMY?</li></ul>Discipline practiced by scientists and food professionals that studies the physical and chemical processes that occur while cooking<br /><ul><li> Term “Molecular and Physycal Gastronomy”</li></ul> 1992 Hungarian physicist (Nicolas Kurti) and a French physical chemist (Hervé This)<br /><ul><li> 1996 First Workshop in Italy, Erice, with scientists and professional cooks </li></ul> Creation of a formal discipline<br />I think it is a sad reflection on our civilization that while we can and do measure the temperature in the atmosphere of Venus we do not know what goes on inside our soufflés<br />—Nicholas Kurti<br />
  4. 4. Molecular gastronomy<br /><ul><li>Developed in countries as France, Spain, Italy, Canada and Finland.</li></ul> Many chefs: Grant Achatz, Ferran Adrià, Jose Andres, Sat Bains, Richard Blais, Marcel Vigneron, Heston Blumenthal, Sean Brock, Homaro Cantu, Michael Carlson, Wylie Dufresne,Pierre Gagnaire, Will Goldfarb, Adam Melonas, Randy Rucker, Kevin Sousa, Sean Wilkinson, and Laurent Gras.<br /><ul><li>Objectives and programm:</li></ul> 1- Model «culinary definitions»<br /> 2- Collect and test «culinary precisions»<br /> 3- Explore (scientifically) the artistic component of cooking<br /> 4- Explore (scientifically) social phenomena linked to cooking<br />Basic role: Bridging the gap between culinary art and science<br />
  5. 5. Myths debunked<br /><ul><li> You need to add salt to water when cooking green vegetables
  6. 6. Searing meat seals in the juices
  7. 7. The cooking time for roast meat depends on the weight
  8. 8. When cooking meat stock you must start with cold water (while false, most cooks who use tap water avoid hot water, because hot water pipes may or may not have minor mineral deposits, which give an unpleasant flavor)</li></li></ul><li>TECHNIQUES, TOOLS, AND INGREDIENTS<br /><ul><li>Carbon dioxide source  bubbles and  foams
  9. 9. Liquid nitrogen (-196ºC) flash freezing and shattering
  10. 10. Maltodextrin can turn a high-fat liquid into a powder
  11. 11. Enzymes
  12. 12. Centrifuge
  13. 13. Food dehydrator
  14. 14. Lecithin   emulsifier and non-stick agent
  15. 15. Hydrocolloids   thickening agents, gelling agents, emulsifying agents, and stabilizers, sometimes needed for foams
  16. 16. Spherification  a caviar-like effect
  17. 17. Syringe, for injecting unexpected fillings
  18. 18. Edible paper made from soybeans and potato starch</li></li></ul><li>Examples of coagulation and jellification<br />65 ºC<br />What can be done in the kitchen...<br />71 ºC<br />
  19. 19. Ferran Adrià, for molecular gastronomy <br /><ul><li> Hospitalet de Llobregat, May 1962
  20. 20. 1st job was as a dishwasher in Hotel Playafels (Castelldefels) in 1980
  21. 21. At 19 military service  worked as a cook
  22. 22. 1984 joined the kitchen staff of El Bulli as a line cook. 18 months later  head chef.
  23. 23. El Bulli open for 6 months of the year (years 2012 and 2013 will be close to create new gastronomic formats)  ALICIA foundation
  24. 24. Restaurant Top 50 ranking: 2006 – 2nd, 2007 – 1st, 2008 – 1st, 2009 – 1st, 2010 – 2nd
  25. 25. 3 Michelin stars
  26. 26. Author of several cook-books : A Day at El Bulli, El Bulli 2003-2004  and Cocinar en Casa  (Cooking at Home).
  27. 27. Denounced his fellow 3-star cook Santi Santamaria for several acusations</li></ul>"The ideal customer doesn't come to El Bulli to eat but to have an experience" - Ferran Adrià<br />
  28. 28. Liquidnitrogen<br />Blumenthal is not found of the term molecular gastronomy, which he thinks sounds elitist. "Everything in cooking is chemical," he says. "Water is a chemical. Salt is a chemical.”<br />
  29. 29. SANTI SANTAMARIA, against molecular gastronomy<br /><ul><li> Sant Celoni, July 1957 – Singapour, February 2011
  30. 30. He studied technical and industrial drawing
  31. 31. Prominent avant-garde Catalan chef
  32. 32. 1st catalan chef with a 3 “Michelin Star” restaurant  el Racó de can Fabes
  33. 33. Modern interpretation of catalan cuisine and slow food  fresh Mediterranian ingredients
  34. 34. 10 books published</li></li></ul><li>SANTI SANTAMARIA, “Cocina al desnudo”<br />Controversial accusations against the molecular gastronomic innovations of other Spanish chefs, singling out the cooking movement of Ferran Adrià : "Adrià's dishes are designed to impress rather than to satisfy and used chemicals that actually put diners' health at risk". <br /><ul><li> Public attack on the "molecular gastronomy“  publication of “Cocina al desnudo” 2008.
  35. 35. Book described as an attack againsts the spanish gastronomy.</li></ul>“modern cooking”  "poisoning" diners with chemical emulsifiers.<br /><ul><li> Direct attack to Burger King  challenge to elaborate a better burger.
  36. 36. Awarded with “Premio de Hoy”  60.000 €.</li></li></ul><li>Ferranadriàvssantisantamaria dishes<br />vs<br />“al estragón” peppers<br />“Pimientos al piquillos” with bananas and milk<br />S. Santamaria<br />F. Adrià<br />
  37. 37. Ferranadriàvssantisantamaria dishes<br />vs<br />Textured vegetable panaché<br />Scallop consommé and foie gras<br />F. Adrià<br />S. Santamaria<br />
  38. 38. Ferranadriàvssantisantamaria dishes<br />vs<br />Chocolate beignets<br />“Carrot air”<br />S. Santamaria<br />F. Adrià<br />
  39. 39. Ferranadriàvssantisantamaria dishes<br />vs<br />Belly of teriyaki mackerel <br />Partridge gutter<br />S. Santamaria<br />F. Adrià<br />
  40. 40. What do youthinkisthefuture of Molecular Gastronomy?<br />