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Open Data and Standard APIs

Open Data and Standard APIs learning material for iCOINS: Industry 4.0 competences for SMEs - Awareness raising tools - project. The iCOINS project aimed at developing common EU competences for raising awareness of SMEs on Industry 4.0 through an innovative Training Course. The primary target groups are VET teachers, trainers and mentors. Additionally, iCOINS serves the needs of SMEs staff, higher education staff and students, vocational institutions, vocational higher education institutions/teachers, public administration staff.

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Open Data and Standard APIs

  1. 1. Open Data Definition and Management • Why is it necessary to understand what open data means and why the definitions should be followed? • Simple answer: Interoperability • Interoperability means the ability of diverse systems and organizations to work together (inter-operate). • Without interoperability building large, complex systems becomes near impossible — as evidenced in the most famous Tower of Babel myth, where the (in)ability to communicate (to interoperate) resulted in the complete breakdown of the tower-building effort
  2. 2. Open Data Definition and Management • Open data and content can be freely used, modified, and shared by anyone for any purpose (Open Definition) • The most important precise details what this means: (OpenDataHandbook) • Availability and Access: the data must be available as a whole and at no more than a reasonable reproduction cost, preferably by downloading over the internet. The data must also be available in a convenient and modifiable form. • Re-use and Redistribution: the data must be provided under terms that permit re-use and redistribution including the intermixing with other datasets • Universal Participation: everyone must be able to use, re-use and redistribute
  3. 3. Open Data Definition and Management How is Open Data typically formatted? See What is Open Data? video by U of G Library
  4. 4. Open Data Definition and Management How can Smart Cities make use of Open Data? Read the following article about Open Data and Open Source enabling Smart City Development.
  5. 5. Standard APIs and Service • APIs are specifications that govern interoperability between applications and services (Vukovic et al. 2016) • With APIs the development of new applications and services can be enhanced by reusing and recycling code and productization of programming interfaces (Moilanen et al. 2019) • There are several types of APIs, typically categorized into three main categories: • Open Data API – for sharing open data • Open API – for sharing data publicly or to partners • Private API – for sharing data internally (Moilanen et al. 2019)
  6. 6. • Application programming interfaces can create value in the following ways: (Moilanen et al. 2019) 1. APIs offer easier access to data 2. APIs can reduce complexity by standardizing the implementation of tasks (e.g. retrieving and sending data) 3. APIs increase the visibility of services and support open innovation 4. APIs can decrease the perceived risk, as switching from one API to another can be done with relatively little effort 5. APIs can provide opportunities for development of content by providing a new channel for data providers Standard APIs and Service
  7. 7. • Standards make it easier for organizations to inter-operate and co-operate. Using Standard APIs significantly lowers the barriers for partners, customers and individual developers to develop new applications and services • Most common Standard web service APIs are: • REST • JSON-RPC • XML-RPC • SOAP Standard APIs and Service
  8. 8. My first Quiz: Open Data Test 1 Which of these can be considered open data? JSON document of GPS location information of objects you can use for any purpose Excel document of buildings and their coordinates you can use for educational purposes PDF document you can download from the Internet Word document of students that have passed this course that you can download but not share to others
  9. 9. My first Quiz: Open Data Test 2 Which of these are recommended Open Data formats? Excel File Format (XLS) JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Portable Document Format (PDF) Comma-separated values (CSV)
  10. 10. My first Quiz: Open Data Test 3 How can Smart Cities benefit from sharing open data? Share information of people that give negative feedback about the city Share information about salaries of their employees Share information about events in the city Share information about how much money they spend investing in open data
  11. 11. My first Quiz: Standard API Test 1 Which of these are Standard web service APIs? Representational state transfer (REST) Microsoft Open XML Spreadsheet (XLSX) Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) XML-RPC (remote procedure call)