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Pictures of an immigrant's journey from Ireland to the coal mines of NEPA

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  1. 1. Write one (1) paragraph… 21 April 2008 <ul><li>What ethnicity are you? Did any recent family members or friends “come off the boat”? Explain. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Write one (1) paragraph… 21 April 2008 <ul><li>Do you think it would be a good idea for the government to have a central location for immigrants coming into the United States? Explain. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Write one (1) paragraph… 22 April 2008 <ul><li>Take a worksheet: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do you think it was a good idea for the immigration officials to have these tests? Explain. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Immigration Unit Six:
  5. 5. Unit Six Objectives <ul><li>Identify factors that influenced individuals to come to the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the efforts that were made to control immigration and personal behavior in the late 1800s. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Immigration to the United States, 1901–1920
  7. 8. Immigrant Experience <ul><li>Reasons to come to US… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push factors – why leave homeland? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crop failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shortages of land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shortages of jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased taxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starvation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious and political persecution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><ul><li>Pull factors – why the US? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rags to riches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to worship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right to vote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family, friends experiences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Hopes & Dreams <ul><li>1860 – US population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>31.5 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1865 – 1920 population increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 million more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dreams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get rich quick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t have to serve in army (conscription) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to take part in democratic gov’t </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Crossing the Ocean <ul><li>By 1900… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossing ocean in 1 week </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traveled by…steerage </li></ul><ul><li>Problems… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited toilets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment on ship depend on what country you were emigrating from </li></ul>
  11. 12. Steerage
  12. 13. In America <ul><li>1/3 or 30% of immigrants were “birds of passage”… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young, single men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Between 1865-1890: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North, West and Central Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Between 1890-1920: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another 10 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South and Eastern Europe as well as Asia </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>1891 – Office of Superintendent to Immigration… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created to determine fit or unfit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>70% came through “Golden Door”… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NYC </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Immigrants from Europe <ul><li>In 1892, reception center opened in NY… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ellis Island </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Statue of Liberty served as a symbol… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given as a gift from France, “Liberty Enlightening the World” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbol of safety, opportunity and refuge </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Newly landed European immigrant families on the dock at Ellis Island in New York harbor, 1900. Originally a black and white photograph, this image was later color tinted for reproduction as a postcard or book illustration. SOURCE:The Granger Collection,New York.
  16. 18. Ellis Island
  17. 19. Statue of Liberty Reading
  18. 21. Process for entering the US <ul><li>1892 – Fed. Gov’t required physical exam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contagious – if found to have a contagious disease (trachoma) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quarantined – kept separate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deported – sent back </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Brought papers to gov’t officials </li></ul><ul><li>Left to find family/friends </li></ul>
  19. 22. Where Immigrants Settled <ul><li>Major cities… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NYC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffalo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boston </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleveland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detroit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milwaukee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only 2% went South </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>Some areas of settlement became ghettos… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One racial group dominant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for settling there? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comfort, language, religion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often resulted in isolation or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Restrictive covenants… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas where homeowner would only sell to certain ethnicity </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Immigrants from Asia <ul><li>Two areas mainly from… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Typical problems… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Targets of suspicion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targets of hostility due to being “very” different </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Chinese <ul><li>Settlement… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-1800’s came to… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work RR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>250,000 of which 12,000 worked for Central Pacific until 1869 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Like indentured servitude… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had to work until paid off cost of coming to US, as well as expenses, eating and sleeping arrangements, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>Typical Jobs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food prep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factory work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laundry </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>Ways they experienced discrimination… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Racism due to differences in dress, food, tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gov’t reaction to racism… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Answering Union’s issues regarding competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stopped all immigration to US for work UNLESS they already lived here or were with family already here </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 29. View of Chinese Immigrants Reading