A good frame makes it easier to know what you are up against, and, ultimately, what you can do about it.
Integrate a few examples within the next set of slides. Use examples of using frames in a variety of contexts – Chapter 16 of the book.
Give Secondary School ecosystem example – Then, sampels of higher education ecosystem that would involve the political frame.
Frames of leadership nagap
Problem arises when the structure doesnot fit the situation.
Overview of the Four-Frame Model Structural Human Resource Political SymbolicMetaphor for Factory or Machine Family Jungle Carnival, temple, theaterOrganizationCentral Rules, roles, goals, Needs, skills, Power, conflict, Culture, meaning,Concepts policies, relationships competition, metaphor, ritual, technology, organizational ceremony, stories, heroes environment politicsImage of Social architecture Empowerment Advocacy InspirationLeadershipBasic Attune structure to Align Develop agenda Create faith, beauty,Leadership task, technology, organizational and and power base meaningChallenge environment human needsOrganizational Excellence Caring Justice FaithEthicLeadership Authorship Love Power SignificanceContribution Source: Bolman & Deal (1997), p. 15 & p. 344
Choosing a FrameQuestion Frame if answer is Yes Frame if answer is NoAre individual Human Resource, Symbolic Structural, Politicalcommitment andmotivation essential tosuccess?Is the technical quality of Structural Human Resource,the decision important? Political, SymbolicAre there high levels of Political, Symbolic Structural, Humanambiguity and Resourceuncertainty?Are conflict and scarce Political, Symbolic Structural, Humanresources significant? ResourceAre you working from the Political Structural, Humanbottom up? Resource, Symbolic Source: Bolman & Deal (1997), p. 271
Reframing Leadership Structural Human Political Symbolic ResourcesEffective Analyst, Catalyst, Advocate, Prophet, poetLeader architect servant negotiatorEffective Analysis, design Support, Advocacy, Inspiration, framingLeadership empowerme coalition experienceProcess nt buildingIneffective Petty tyrant Weakling, Con artist, Fanatic, foolLeader pushover thugIneffective Management by Abdication Manipulation, Mirage, smoke &Leadership detail and fiat fraud mirrorsProcess Source: Bolman & Deal (1997), p. 303
Process Structural Human Political Symbolic Resource Approaching Maintain Develop Develop power by Develop shared conflict organizational relationships by bargaining, forcing values and use goals by having having individuals or manipulating conflict to negotiate authorities resolve resolve conflict others to win meaning conflict Goal setting Keep organization Keep people Provide opportunity Develop symbols headed in the right involved and for individuals & and shared values direction communication groups to make open interests knownCommunication Transmit facts and Exchange Influence or Tell stories information information, needs, manipulate others and feelings Meetings Formal occasions Informal occasions Competitive Sacred occasions to make decisions for involvements, occasions to win to celebrate and sharing, feelings points transform culture Motivation Economic Growth and self Coercions, Symbols and incentives actualization manipulation, and celebrations seduction
Reframing Change Structural Human Political Symbolic ResourcesBarriers to Loss of clarity Anxiety, Disempowerment, Loss of meaningChange and stability, uncertainty, conflict between and purpose, confusion, chaos feelings of winners and losers clinging to the past incompetence, needinessEssential Communicating, Training to Creating arenas Creating transitionStrategies realigning and develop new where issues can rituals: mourning renegotiating skills, be renegotiated and the past, formal patterns participation new coalitions celebrating the and policies and formed future involvement, psychological support Source: Bolman & Deal (1997), p. 321
Kotter, John, Leading Change:why Transformation Efforts Fail.Harvard Business Review, MarchApril 1995
Kotter’s Stage of Change Structural Human Political Symbolic ResourceSense of Involve people Network with Tell aurgency throughout the key players, compelling organization, use power story seek input baseGuiding a Develop a Run team Stack team Putteam coordination building with credible, commanding strategy exercises for influential officer on team guiding team membersUplifting Build Map political Craft a hopefulvision & implementation terrain vision of futurestrategy plan rooted in organization history
Kotter’s Stage of Change Structural Human Political Symbolic ResourceCommunicate vision Create Hold meetings to Create Visible& strategy through structures to communicate arenas; build leadershipwords, deeds and support change direction, get alliances, involvement,symbols process feedback defuse kickoff opposition ceremoniesRemove obstacles & Remove or alter Providing Stage publicempower people to structures & training, exposure ofmove forward procedures that resources and counter- support the old support revolutionaries waysEarly wins Plan for short Invest Celebrate & term victories resources & communicate power to early signs of ensure early progress wins
Kotter’s Stage of Change Structural Human Political Symbolic ResourceKeep going Keep people Hold revivalwhen the on plan meetingsgoing getstoughNew culture Align structure Create a Mourn theto support to new culture culture team; past; celebratenew ways broad the heroes of involvement in the revolution; developing share stories of culture the journey
What frame do you predominantly view your work and make decisions in?
Tabletop Exercise: The EnrollmentManager’s dilemma