Ecology (Ch 5 & 6)
Populations <ul><li>Group of the same species living in the same area </li></ul><ul><li>Important Features </li></ul><ul><...
Geographic Distribution <ul><li>Range of Locations that the species is found in </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by tolerances...
Population Density <ul><li># of individuals of a species within a unit area </li></ul><ul><li>Different in different speci...
Population Growth <ul><li>Change in size of a population </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that affect growth </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Job Offer <ul><li>Job #1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting salary= $10,000  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise= increased $10,0...
Exponential Growth <ul><li>Seen in populations with unlimited resources </li></ul>
Logistic Growth <ul><li>Population shows exponential growth until a resource becomes limited </li></ul><ul><li>Growth is s...
Limiting Factors <ul><li>Factor that limits growth </li></ul><ul><li>Density-dependent factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affec...
Demography <ul><li>Study of the size of human populations </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rates are controlled by the same factor...
Historical Demography <ul><li>Human population used to be low and relatively stable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited by resou...
Age Structures <ul><li>Histogram depicting the number of people in each age category within a population </li></ul><ul><li...
Biodiversity <ul><li>Variety of Life </li></ul><ul><li>Important because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides varied resources <...
Geographic Distribution of Biodiversity
Threats to Biodiversity <ul><li>Habitat Loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Habitat Fragmentat...
Habitat Loss
Resourses <ul><li>Non-renewable -  cannot be remade (or only can be remade over a long time period) </li></ul><ul><li>Rene...
Habitat Fragmentation
Pollution <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals, Trash, Temperatures, Noise  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul...
Effects of Pollution: Acid Rain
Effects of Pollution: Ozone Depletion
Effect of Pollution: Biomagnification <ul><li>Chemical pollutant becomes more concentrated as it moves up the trophic leve...
Invasive Species <ul><li>Also called non-native species </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced to new habitat  </li></ul><ul><li>Oft...
Losing Biodiversity <ul><li>Species experiences a decline in growth </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ca...
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Ecology (ch 5 & 6)

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Ecology (ch 5 & 6)

  1. 1. Ecology (Ch 5 & 6)
  2. 2. Populations <ul><li>Group of the same species living in the same area </li></ul><ul><li>Important Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age Structure </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Geographic Distribution <ul><li>Range of Locations that the species is found in </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by tolerances for the species </li></ul><ul><li>Also controlled by geographical barriers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Population Density <ul><li># of individuals of a species within a unit area </li></ul><ul><li>Different in different species and ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Based on biotic and abiotic factors </li></ul>
  5. 5. Population Growth <ul><li>Change in size of a population </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that affect growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth rate- # of births in a population over a period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death rate- # of deaths in a population over a period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration (moving in) and Emigration (moving out) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Job Offer <ul><li>Job #1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting salary= $10,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise= increased $10,000/day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job #2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting salary= $0.01 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise= Salary doubled every day </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Exponential Growth <ul><li>Seen in populations with unlimited resources </li></ul>
  8. 8. Logistic Growth <ul><li>Population shows exponential growth until a resource becomes limited </li></ul><ul><li>Growth is slowed or stopped when population size reaches carrying capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying capacity (k)- amount of individuals of a population that an area that support </li></ul>
  9. 9. Limiting Factors <ul><li>Factor that limits growth </li></ul><ul><li>Density-dependent factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect of factor increases with increasing population density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism and Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Density-independent factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect of factor does not depend of population density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate changes, natural disasters, and human disturbances </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Demography <ul><li>Study of the size of human populations </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rates are controlled by the same factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration and Emigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age Structure </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Historical Demography <ul><li>Human population used to be low and relatively stable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited by resources and disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Past 500 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exponential growth as limits have been removed </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Age Structures <ul><li>Histogram depicting the number of people in each age category within a population </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to predict future growth </li></ul>
  13. 13. Biodiversity <ul><li>Variety of Life </li></ul><ul><li>Important because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides varied resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medicines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates stability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Species Diversity- number of different species </li></ul>
  14. 14. Geographic Distribution of Biodiversity
  15. 15. Threats to Biodiversity <ul><li>Habitat Loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Habitat Fragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of Invasive species </li></ul>
  16. 16. Habitat Loss
  17. 17. Resourses <ul><li>Non-renewable - cannot be remade (or only can be remade over a long time period) </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable- can be remade </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development- use of renewable resources in a way that does not deplete future supplies </li></ul>
  18. 18. Habitat Fragmentation
  19. 19. Pollution <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals, Trash, Temperatures, Noise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals, Trash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals and Noise </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Effects of Pollution: Acid Rain
  21. 21. Effects of Pollution: Ozone Depletion
  22. 22. Effect of Pollution: Biomagnification <ul><li>Chemical pollutant becomes more concentrated as it moves up the trophic levels within a food chain or web </li></ul><ul><li>Very dangerous for top level predators </li></ul>
  23. 23. Invasive Species <ul><li>Also called non-native species </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced to new habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Often grows without check because of lack of natural predators or disease in the area </li></ul>
  24. 24. Losing Biodiversity <ul><li>Species experiences a decline in growth </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian lynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prairie dog </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endangered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bald Eagle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Marine Mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extinct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dodo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passenger Pigeon </li></ul></ul>

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