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Chapter 3 notes communities, biomes and ecosystems


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Chapter 3 notes communities, biomes and ecosystems

  1. 1. Communities, Biomes and Ecosystems<br />Chapter 3<br />
  2. 2. Community Ecology<br />Section 1<br />
  3. 3. Communities<br />Community – all of the populations that live in the same area at the same time<br />Limiting Factor – any abiotic or biotic factor that restricts the numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms<br />
  4. 4. Limiting Factors<br />Abiotic<br />Sunlight<br />Climate<br />Temperature<br />Water<br />Nutrients<br />Fire<br />Soil Chemistry<br />Space<br />Biotic<br />Plant species<br />Animal species<br />Competition<br />Parasitism<br />
  5. 5. Range of Tolerance<br />Tolerance – the ability of any organism to survive when subjected to non-ideal biotic or abiotic conditions<br />Steelhead Trout tolerate 9-25°C<br />
  6. 6. What Shapes an Ecosystem<br />Ecological Succession<br />As an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out and new organisms move in, causing further predictable changes in the community.<br />Primary Succession<br />Occurs on surfaces where no soil exists<br />Example: new surface where volcanic eruptions occurred.<br />
  7. 7. Primary Succession<br /><br />
  8. 8. Primary Succession<br />
  9. 9. What Shapes an Ecosystem<br />Secondary Succession<br />Occurs when land cleared and plowed for farming is abandoned. It also occurs where wildfires burn forests.<br />
  10. 10. Secondary Succession<br /><br /><br />
  11. 11. Terrestrial Biomes<br />Section 2<br />
  12. 12. Effects of Latitude and Climate<br />What is climate?<br />Weather – the day to day conditions of the earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place<br />Climate – average conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region<br />
  13. 13. Effects of Latitude and Climate<br />Factors that influence climate:<br />Latitude<br />Wind<br />Shape and elevation of land masses<br />Ocean Currents<br />
  14. 14. Latitude<br />
  15. 15. Effects of Latitude and Climate<br />Effect of latitude on climate<br />Tropical zone – receives direct sunlight year round<br />Climate is always warm<br />Temperate zone – angle of sunlight changes, so does the climate<br />Climate will be warm or cold depending on the season<br />Polar zone – sunlight strikes the earth at an angle<br />Climate will be cold year round<br />
  16. 16. Wind<br />
  17. 17. Elevation<br />
  18. 18. Ocean Currents<br />
  19. 19. The Greenhouse Effect<br />The greenhouse effect: a natural phenomenon that maintains the earth’s temperature range<br />Gasses trap in heat much like the glass of a greenhouse<br />Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Tundra<br />Climate- cold (-94°F – 10°F) and dry (15-25cm/year)<br />Characterized by permafrost (permanently frozen soil)<br />Geographic location -south of the polar ice caps in the northern hemisphere<br />
  22. 22. Boreal Forest<br />Climate- cold (-65°F – 69°F) and some rain(30-84cm/year)<br />Characterized by lack of permafrost and some trees and shrubs<br />Geographic location –northern parts of North America, Europe and Asia<br />
  23. 23. Temperate Forest<br />Climate- (-22°F – 86°F) and fairly wet (75-150cm/year)<br />Characterized by large deciduous forests<br />Geographic location –Eastern North America, Eastern Asia, Australia and Europe<br />
  24. 24. Temperate Woodland and Shrubland<br />Climate- hot (50°F – 104°F) and fairly dry(38-100 cm/year)<br />Characterized by shrubs and small trees<br />Geographic location –Western North America, Mediterranean Sea, South Africa and Australia<br />
  25. 25. Temperate Grassland<br />Climate- hot (-40°F – 100°F) and fairly dry(50-89 cm/year)<br />Characterized by grasses and flowers<br />Geographic location –North America, South America, Asia, Africa and Australia<br />
  26. 26. Desert<br />Climate- temperature fluctuates and very dry(2-26 cm/year)<br />Characterized by cacti, reptiles, birds<br />Geographic location –every continent except europe<br />
  27. 27. Tropical Savanna<br />Climate- (70°F – 90°F) and somewhat dry(50-130 cm/year)<br />Characterized by grasses and scattered trees<br />Geographic location –Africa, South America and Australia<br />
  28. 28. Tropical Seasonal Forest<br />Climate- (70°F – 90°F) and somewhat dry(>200 cm/year)<br />Characterized by trees, orchids, mosses and seasonal rainfall<br />Geographic location –Africa, South America, Central America, Australia, Asia<br />
  29. 29. Tropical Rain Forest<br />Climate- warm (75°F – 80°F) and wet (200-1,000 cm/year)<br />Characterized by broadleaf evergreens, bamboo, ferns<br />Geographic location –Africa, South America, Central America, Australia, Asia<br />
  30. 30. Aquatic Ecosystems<br />Section 3.3<br />
  31. 31. Aquatic Ecosystems<br />Determined primarily by the depth, flow, temperature, and chemistry<br />Chemistry – the amount of dissolved chemicals, especially salts, nutrients, and oxygen<br />Two main types of aquatic ecosystems:<br />Freshwater Ecosystems<br />Marine Ecosystems (salt water)<br />
  32. 32. Aquatic Ecosystems<br />Freshwater Ecosystems<br />Flowing Water Ecosystems – freshwater ecosystems that flow over the land<br />rivers, streams<br />Standing Water Ecosystems – bodies of water that do not flow over the land<br />Lakes, and ponds<br />
  33. 33. Aquatic Ecosystems<br />Marine Ecosystems<br />Photic zone – well lit area of the ocean<br />Only to a depth of about 200 meters<br />Where photosynthesis can take place<br />Aphotic zone – permanently dark area of the ocean<br />
  34. 34. Aquatic Ecosystems<br />Freshwater Wetlands – an ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year<br />Include: bogs, marshes, and swamps<br />They are important breeding grounds for migratory birds<br />