Ancient Egyptian History


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Freshman class

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Ancient Egyptian History

  2. 2. What are Egypt's geographical features? <ul><li>The Nile River </li></ul><ul><li>The Delta </li></ul><ul><ul><li> (Delta) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hymn to the Nile <ul><li>“ Hail flood! Emerging from the earth, arriving to bring Egypt to life, hidden of form, the darkness in the day, the one whose followers sing to him, as he waters the plants, created by Ra to make every herd live, who satisfies the desert hills removed from the water, for it is his due that descends from the sky.” </li></ul><ul><li>What can we learn about Egyptian culture from this hymn? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Where were all of the ancient Egyptian cities located? Why? <ul><li>Along the Nile River in flooding zones </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why is Upper Egypt where it is? <ul><li>Upper Egypt was upriver </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Egypt was at a higher elevation </li></ul><ul><li>Back then Egyptians had not concept of North or South </li></ul>
  6. 6. King Menes <ul><li>United both Upper and Lower Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>This was important because it allowed Egyptian culture to thrive under stable political conditions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Why was Egyptian civilization able to last thousands of years, relatively unchanged when Mesopotamian civilization did not last so long? <ul><li>Egypt had even better natural borders, so no natural enemies. </li></ul><ul><li>The common economy of the Nile </li></ul><ul><li>The early unification of Upper and Lower Egypt </li></ul>
  8. 8. Egyptian Religion
  9. 9. Egyptian religion
  10. 10. Mono or polytheistic?
  11. 11. What were Egyptians concerned with? <ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>The afterlife </li></ul>
  12. 12. How were Egyptian rulers different from Sumerian kings? <ul><li>Sumerian King </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian pharaoh </li></ul>
  13. 13. How were Egyptian rulers different from Sumerian kings? <ul><li>Agents of God: Ham getting codes </li></ul><ul><li>Actually gods: pharaoh ruling over </li></ul>
  14. 14. Couple of vocab words <ul><li>Dynasty – when a king or other ruler passes their position down in their family and that family is in power for a long time </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaoh – the Egyptian equivalent of king. The word means “great house” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why does it mean great house? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do you think people followed the pharaoh’s orders? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Egyptian history is divided <ul><li>Three Kingdoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Kingdom </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Old Kingdom <ul><li>3100-2100 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Pyramid at Giza built for Khufu </li></ul><ul><li>Sphinx built for his son Khafre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People still don’t know what the Sphinx is </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Great Pyramid at Giza
  18. 18. Herodotus – nice beard, baldy <ul><li>484-425 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>The father of History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awesome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wrote Histories , which describes the Great Pyramid at Giza </li></ul><ul><li>Is Histories a primary or a secondary source? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Old Kingdom <ul><li>The pharaoh created a bureacracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s that? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a form of organization in which officeholders have defined positions and titles. Formal rules specify the duties of the officeholders. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The pharaoh had a vizier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vizier was an advisor, governor, and assistant to the pharaoh </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Middle Kingdom <ul><li>2050 – 1550 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaohs began to care for their public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canals, and dams, and draining swampland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Period of great political and social stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of an empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are periods of stability usually times of cultural achievement? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Hatshepsut – the woman pharaoh <ul><li>Female pharaoh who ruled as a regent for her young son </li></ul><ul><li>Very successful and powerful leader </li></ul><ul><li>Why is she depicted like she is on the right here? </li></ul>
  22. 22. New Kingdom <ul><li>1550 – 1070 </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt becomes the most powerful empire in ancient world </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt goes through religious shifts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poly-mono-poly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King Tut and the Valley of the Kings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborate tombs </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Who was King Tut? Why important? <ul><li>King Tutankhamen who brought back the old polytheistic gods </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively not special as a king </li></ul><ul><li>His tomb was found completely intact. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This was a HUGE archaeological find </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. King Tut’s Tomb <ul><li>The tomb was densely packed with items in great disarray. Carter was able to photograph garlands of flowers, which disintegrated when touched. Due to the state of the tomb, and to Carter's meticulous recording technique, the tomb took nearly a decade to empty. </li></ul>
  25. 29. King Tut’s Tomb <ul><li>Tutankhamun's tomb had been entered at least twice, not long after he was buried and well before Carter's discovery. The outermost doors of the shrines enclosing the king's nested coffins were left opened, and unsealed. It is estimated that 60% of the jewelry which had been stored in the &quot;Treasury&quot; was removed as well. </li></ul>