The article starts pointing different research and their purposesRelation to white privileges. How they are seen. Man as a head of the family vs. woman childbearersThe historical record indicates that even in the worst if times – slavery, economic deprivation and urbanization – black men manage to develop a sense of dignity and self worth, were connected to their families, and provide for them as best they could
Beingblack and male in American societyisassociatedwithstereotypes as..Studiesdefinedblackmen as psychologicallyaninterpersonallyimpotentIn anurbanenviromentthe fundamental pathology in thestructure and organization (matriarchy) of manypoorblackfamiliesledtojuveniledelinquency , illegitimacy, increasingnumbers of femaleheadedhouseholds and a host of other social ills.Theabsence of blackmen at the head of theirfamilies and toopowerfulwomenprecludedappropriate sex role socialization and ultimatelyadultmale role performance. In short black males failedtolearnwhatbeing a manwasallabout. In theabsence of appropiatemodels of manhoodthecycle of inadequiatemale role performance and poorfamilyfunctioningwouldcontinueto produce illprepared males.
Rank husband highest – middleclass men are more likely to rank husband highest and that only infrequently do they see worker as the primary role. This suggest that the precariousness of men’s economic position may affects the primacy of the provider role in their thinking about male role identity. The precariousness of the men's economic position may affect the primacy of the provider role in their thinking about male role identity.White men expectation were not too different from black ones.
Masculinitywas considere somewhatimportantNonprofessionalmanratedmasculinityspiritualy and financialsecurity more higherthandidprofessionalmenLessgenderstereotyped n theirconceptions of masculinity and femininitythanwhiteBlack urbanbarbershop vs. Womanbarbershop
Environment familiar to them – feel comfortableGive opinions attitudes and beliefs to the questionThey were tape between and hour and a half and 30 minutes.They sorted the ideas into conceptual similar ideas. 1 represent similarity and 0 if they not.Construction of concept map - Multidimensioanl scaling technique – to locate each of the 108 ideas on a two dimensional mapHierarchical cluster analysis
This is a collective interpretation of manhood that emerged out of the disparate yet common experiences of black men and the collective memories that have been passed across generations from father to son, from mother to son, brother to brother and kin to kin.Figure 1Graphic representation of the ideas about manhood gathered from the interviews. The proximity if the cluster of ideas presented in the map reflects conceptual closeness or distance between ideas, which allows us to explore linkages and relationships across varied dimensions of manhood. The shapes if the clusters reflects the location and spread of individual ideas on am x-y axis.
Identity and the Development of SelfMen talked about having vision, a strong mind, and flexibility, and of the importance of being able to hold one’s head high with dignity. Being totally accountable for personal actions and able to rectify bad situations one has created.Economic viability and the ability to support one’s self is necessary for independence. To keep going even when one doesn't want to is part of the responsibility of manhood.Ideas that comprise the clusters of directedness, maturity, economic viability, perseverance, and free will focus on the importance of forming or having a sturdy self, that is, having and getting one’s self together and standing by what one has done, believes and is. Connections to familyEmotional detachment not discussed but Related to that was the sentiment that one need not dominate a woman, nor should a man be controlled by a woman.Org – man as the head of the family , functioning – keeping family together
On map – we move from the collective family to the collective community. Equality among people. These constructs embody a world view that links manhood to the collective We and to spirituality.
The most significant difference between young men and older is how they speak about them. What they shareThe ideas reflects their own experience with racism and economic insecurity and the experience of those who came before them. The world is changing all the timeThis present different perspectives and is not intended to represent all men as one but a mainstream black cultural construction of manhood that have helped to sustain families over the timeManhood conceptions vary ith age and experience.Mult, uniUni(tough guy or player of women
Hidden voices of black men
HiddenVoices of Black Men: TheMeaning, Structure, and Complexity of Manhood<br />Andrea G. Hunter<br />James Earl Davis<br />
Learning Objectives<br />Identify and recognize different perspectives on Manhood and Masculinity<br />Analyze investigated data <br />Evaluate conclusions<br />
Male Roles<br />Economic provider<br />“struggles with manhood, whether a byproduct barriers, cultural pathology, or both, are implicated as a contributor to the rates of female-headed households, never-married childbearing, and divorce in Black communities” (145). <br />Black vs. White privileges<br />
Manhood and the Crisis of Back Men<br />Stereotypes<br />Unemployment<br />School failure<br />Violence and crime<br />Poverty<br />Racism<br />Frazier’s seminal work, The Negro family in the United States (1939).<br />The history of slavery, oppression, and disenfranchisement had birthed cultural pathos that displaced the patriarchal family system (146).<br />*Fits prevailing racist imagery of Black men as eternal boys.<br />Hypermasculinity as a dominant conception of manhood in poor-inner city communities.<br />
Expectations<br />Conform to dominant gender role expectations<br /> To be successful, competitive, aggressive<br />Meeting cultural specific requirements<br />Cooperation, promotion of group, survival of group<br />Cazenave’s (1979) study <br />Provider<br />Husband<br />Father<br />Worker<br />Cazenave (1984)<br />2/3 of white men endorsed traits of competitiveness, aggressiveness, and being successful at work.<br />
What do youthinkitmeanstobe a man?<br />Most rated Men’s attributes -(Hunter and Davis (1992)<br />Sense of self (independence, self-esteem)<br />Resourcefulness (making the best of things) and sense of responsibility <br />Parental involvement and sense of family (child oriented, protecting family)<br />Being goal oriented (having goals and direction, ambitious) <br />Being a provider (providing income for family, having a good job)<br />Humanism (being kind and caring, forgiving others)<br />
Experiment<br />32 Black men from Central NY – face to face interview<br />Generation of ideas<br />What do you think it means to be a man?<br />250 ideas – 108 unique ideas<br />Sorting of ideas<br />Categorize the unique items into groups that made sense to them.<br />108 x 108 binary symmetric matrix<br />Construction of concept map<br />is a 2 × 2 binary matrix.<br />
Findings<br />Central challenge of manhood was defined in terms of what they expected of themselves.<br />This was framed by family role expectations and their perspective on identity and the development of the self, connections to family and community, and spiritual and worldview.<br />
Findings<br />Identity and the Development of Self<br />A sense of self-direction – to have one’s own mind and the free will to pursue the path chosen.<br />Independence and importance of perseverance.<br />Connections to family<br />Family was perceived to give a man’s life meaning (Family as an extension of the male ego).<br />Components<br />Family connections and responsibilities<br />Relationship to women<br />Family role expectations<br />Family organization vs. family function<br />
Traditional importance of religion</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions<br />What men thought about manhood<br />Older man were more comfortable talking about manhood and their views were more expansive.<br />“When you’re young, you think everything is black and white, when you’re older you know better” (154).<br />The notion that viable and adaptive constructs of manhood have failed to develop in black communities. <br />Multidimensional vs. unidimensional concepts of manhood<br />
Useful links<br />The Entman-Rojecki Index of Race and the Media - http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/210758.html<br />Brooklyn Gentrification - http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=8680572657077151930&ei=bv3dSvPsOJverQKuk8GnDg&q=brooklyn+gentrification&hl=en#<br />The View Heated Debate Over the N-Word - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a507xSadnrY<br />