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 DNA    (deoxyribonucleic acid). All living things contain DNA. Source of genetic traits. DNA is a nucleic acid. Nucl...
Nucleotides    Made of three     things:    1. Phosphate     (PO4)    2. Sugar     (deoxyribose).    3. Nitrogen base.
Nitrogen BasesFour nitrogen bases makes four different nucleotides: –Guanine –Cytosine –Adenine –Thymine
Chargaff’s Rule He measured amounts of each  base in various organisms and  found:  amt of adenine (A) = thymine (T)  amt...
Structure of DNA   Discovered by Watson and Crick   Double helix- “spiral staircase”, 2    strands of nucleotides   Sid...
What is DNA Replication?   Replicate = make “exact” copies.   All DNA must be replicated before a cell can    divide. Wh...
Enzymes and Replication Helicase- unwinds DNA DNA polymerase-moves along each strand  and brings in bases for new strand...
DNA Replication Can be a mistake in replication Mutations-change in DNA Caused by mutagens, such as X-rays,  toxins, dr...
Mutations   Substitution
How Much DNA Is In Our Cells? Chromosome-strands of DNA coiled tightly Human cell has 46 (23 pair 2 sets of 23)   23 f...
 If all body cells contain the same # of  chromosomes, why are all cells so  different? Different cells make different p...
   The first few cells that develop from    the zygote are called stem cells.   Stem cells differentiate into other    c...
2 Types of Cells Body cells somatic   diploidchromosomes are in pairs (23 pairs) Reproductive cellsgametes   egg & ...
What is the Purpose of DNA? The cell “factory” makes proteins. Gene- a segment of DNA that codes for a  protein. DNA ha...
What is the Purpose of DNA?
RNA (Ribonucleic acid)   _____RNA____vs._____DNA___     single strand           double strand    sugar= ribose           ...
Structure RNA
Part 1of Protein Synthesis:            Transcription Transcription: DNA  RNA (messenger) Occurs in nucleus DNA complem...
Part 2 of Protein Synthesis:          Translation: Translation: mRNA  protein Occurs at ribosomes in cytoplasm Codon-T...
Whole Process  DNA:      ATA-CGG-AAT            transcription in nucleus mRNA: UAU-GCC-UUA(3 codons)            translatio...
The Codon Wheel
Cp dna 2012
Cp dna 2012
Cp dna 2012
Cp dna 2012
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Cp dna 2012

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Cp dna 2012

  1. 1.  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). All living things contain DNA. Source of genetic traits. DNA is a nucleic acid. Nucleic acids are made of nucleotides.
  2. 2. Nucleotides Made of three things: 1. Phosphate (PO4) 2. Sugar (deoxyribose). 3. Nitrogen base.
  3. 3. Nitrogen BasesFour nitrogen bases makes four different nucleotides: –Guanine –Cytosine –Adenine –Thymine
  4. 4. Chargaff’s Rule He measured amounts of each base in various organisms and found: amt of adenine (A) = thymine (T) amt of cytosine (C) = guanine (G) This meant that A bonds to T and C bonds to G If 20% of strand is A, what %T? %C?
  5. 5. Structure of DNA Discovered by Watson and Crick Double helix- “spiral staircase”, 2 strands of nucleotides Siderails-sugar and phosphate Rungs-nitrogen bases – A----T – C----GHydrogen bonds (glue)
  6. 6. What is DNA Replication? Replicate = make “exact” copies. All DNA must be replicated before a cell can divide. Why? Why do cells need to divide? 1.Growth. 2.Repair or replace damaged cells. 3.Regenerate body parts (not all things can do this).
  7. 7. Enzymes and Replication Helicase- unwinds DNA DNA polymerase-moves along each strand and brings in bases for new strand copy
  8. 8. DNA Replication Can be a mistake in replication Mutations-change in DNA Caused by mutagens, such as X-rays, toxins, drugs, UV light, etc. Can cause disease, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, etc. Can be: – insertions of extra bases – deletions of bases – substitutions of the wrong bases.
  9. 9. Mutations Substitution
  10. 10. How Much DNA Is In Our Cells? Chromosome-strands of DNA coiled tightly Human cell has 46 (23 pair 2 sets of 23)  23 from Mom  23 from Dad
  11. 11.  If all body cells contain the same # of chromosomes, why are all cells so different? Different cells make different proteins. Different “active” segments of DNA. During early stages of development, cells become “specialized.”
  12. 12.  The first few cells that develop from the zygote are called stem cells. Stem cells differentiate into other cells.
  13. 13. 2 Types of Cells Body cells somatic  diploidchromosomes are in pairs (23 pairs) Reproductive cellsgametes  egg & sperm  haploid no pairs (23)
  14. 14. What is the Purpose of DNA? The cell “factory” makes proteins. Gene- a segment of DNA that codes for a protein. DNA has 1000’s of genes to make many different types of proteins. – Fingernails, hair, enzymes, hemoglobin, etc. Protein - polymer of amino acids
  15. 15. What is the Purpose of DNA?
  16. 16. RNA (Ribonucleic acid) _____RNA____vs._____DNA___ single strand double strand sugar= ribose sugar= deoxyribose A, C, G, U (uracil) A, C, G, T mRNA, rRNA, tRNA “DNA is DNA” all over nucleus only
  17. 17. Structure RNA
  18. 18. Part 1of Protein Synthesis: Transcription Transcription: DNA  RNA (messenger) Occurs in nucleus DNA complementary to mRNA DNA: ATA-CGG-AAT transcription in nucleus mRNA: UAU-GCC-UUA
  19. 19. Part 2 of Protein Synthesis: Translation: Translation: mRNA  protein Occurs at ribosomes in cytoplasm Codon-Three bases on mRNA that code for an amino acid mRNA: UAU-GCC-UUA (3 codons) translation in cytoplasm protein: a.a.---a.a---a.a. mRNA needs the help of tRNA to bring in the amino acids
  20. 20. Whole Process DNA: ATA-CGG-AAT transcription in nucleus mRNA: UAU-GCC-UUA(3 codons) translation in cytoplasm protein: a.a.-a.a-a.a.How do we know what amino acid results? The Codon chart or wheel!!!
  21. 21. The Codon Wheel

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