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Nephrotic syndrome and glomerulonephritis


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principles of medicine report

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Nephrotic syndrome and glomerulonephritis

  1. 1. Nephrotic syndrome andglomerulonephritis
  2. 2. Nephrotic syndrome• a nonspecific disorder in which the kidneys are damaged, causing them to leak large amounts of protein from the blood into the urine.
  3. 3. Nephrotic syndrome• Primary causes –Minimal-change nephropathy –Focal glomerulosclerosis –Membranous nephropathy –Hereditary nephropathies
  4. 4. Nephrotic syndrome• Secondary causes –Diabetes mellitus –Lupus erythematosus –Amyloidosis and paraproteinemias –Viral infections –Preeclampsia
  5. 5. Nephrotic syndrome• Signs and symptoms –Hypoalbuminemia –Edema –Hypercholesterolemia –Hypoalbuminemia –Tiredness
  6. 6. Nephrotic syndrome• Signs and symptoms –Leukonychia –Breathlessness –fluid overload –Dyslipidaemia
  7. 7. Nephrotic syndrome
  8. 8. Nephrotic syndrome• TREATMENT –Supportive Treatment • Monitoring and maintaining euvolemia –Monitoring urine output, BP regularly –Fluid restrict to 1L. –Diuretics (IV furosemide).
  9. 9. Nephrotic syndrome• TREATMENT –Supportive Treatment • Monitoring kidney function –Do EUCs daily and calculating GFR –Treat hyperlipidemia to prevent further atherosclerosis. –Prevent and treat any complications
  10. 10. Nephrotic syndrome• TREATMENT –Specific Treatment • Immunosuppression for the glomerulonephritides
  11. 11. Glomerulonephritis• Also known as glomerular nephritis (GN) or glomerular disease• It is a disease of the kidney, characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli
  12. 12. Glomerulonephritis• Acute Glomerulonephritis –Cause • infections such as strep throat • Lupus • Goodpastures syndrome • Wegeners disease • polyarteritis nodosa
  13. 13. Glomerulonephritis• Acute Glomerulonephritis –Symptoms • puffiness of your face in the morning • blood in your urine (or brown urine) • urinating less than usual
  14. 14. Glomerulonephritis• Chronic Glomerulonephritis –Cause • This condition may develop after survival of the acute phase of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
  15. 15. Glomerulonephritis• Chronic Glomerulonephritis –Signs and symptoms • Blood or protein in the urine • High blood pressure • Swelling of your ankles or face • Frequent nighttime urination • Very bubbly or foamy urine
  16. 16. Glomerulonephritis• Diagnosis –Urine test –Blood test –Throat swab –Renal function tests –Kidney biopsy –Imaging tests
  17. 17. Glomerulonephritis• Treatment –Diet and fluid intake –Blood chemistry
  18. 18. Glomerulonephritis• Treatment –The following medications may also be prescribed to treat possible underlying causes: • Bacterial infections - a targeted antibiotic • Lupus or vasculitis - corticosteroids and immunosuppressants
  19. 19. Glomerulonephritis• Treatment • IgA - possibly fish oil supplements. • Goodpastures syndrome - plasmapheresis is a procedure designed to reduce blood plasma levels without depleting the body of its blood cells. Antibodies are removed and donated plasma replaces the depleted plasma