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The 1920’s

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The 1920’s

  1. 2. <ul><li>W.E.B. DuBois </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed African-American support for the war would lead to racial equality at home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favored cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of blacks sided with DuBois </li></ul></ul><ul><li>William Monroe Trotter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that victims of racism should not support racial governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condemned DuBois’ approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favored protesting </li></ul></ul>
  2. 4. <ul><li>Massive movement of African-Americans from the South to the North </li></ul><ul><li>Push Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jim Crowe Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bug infestation, floods and droughts ruined cotton fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lynching </li></ul></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Pull Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ford’s assembly line was opened to black workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of European immigration caused a labor shortage at the factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiters gave free railroad passes and free housing </li></ul></ul>
  4. 7. <ul><li>Took place in the early 1900s, particularly in the 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>African-American literature, art, music, dance, and social commentary began to flourish in Harlem, a section of New York City </li></ul><ul><li>This African-American cultural movement became known as &quot;The New Negro Movement&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known later as the Harlem Renaissance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redefined African-American expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African-Americans were encouraged to celebrate their heritage </li></ul></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>Main factors contributing to the development of the Harlem Renaissance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African-American urban migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends toward experimentation throughout the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rise of radical African-American intellectuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Harlem Renaissance transformed African-American identity and history, but it also transformed American culture in general. Never before had so many Americans read the thoughts of African-Americans and embraced the African-American community's productions, expressions, and style </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>Spirituals arose in the early 19th century among African American slaves who had been denied the opportunity to practice traditional African religions </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;call and response&quot; pattern in which they are typically performed are compared to worship traditions in West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were able to create a religious refuge from their dehumanizing condition, affirming their humanity as individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Spirituals were the inspiration behind a new music genre: Jazz </li></ul>Cab Calloway Mini the Moocher Paul Robeson Swing Low Sweet Chariot
  7. 10. Folks, now here's the story 'bout Minnie the Moocher, She was a red-hot hootchie-cootcher, She was the roughest, toughest frail, But Minnie had a heart as big as a whale. [Call and response scat chorus differs every time. The following is simplified:] Hi-de-hi-de-hi-di-hi! Ho-de-ho-de-ho-de-ho! He-de-he-de-he-de-he! Ho-de-ho-de-ho!
  8. 11. Now, she messed around with a bloke named Smoky, She loved him though he was cokie, He took her down to Chinatown, He showed her how to kick the gong around. Now, she had a dream about the king of Sweden, He gave her things that she was needin', He gave her a home built of gold and steel, A diamond car with a platinum wheel.
  9. 12. Now, he gave her his townhouse and his racing horses, Each meal she ate was a dozen courses; She had a million dollars worth of nickels and dimes, And she sat around and counted them all a billion times. Poor Min, poor Min, poor Min.
  10. 14. <ul><li>According Wynton Marsalis jazz is music that swings </li></ul><ul><li>According to Webster's dictionary, jazz is characterized by propulsive syncopated rhythms, polyphonic ensemble playing, varying degrees of improvisation, and often deliberate distortions of pitch and timbre </li></ul><ul><li>Ask 100 different people “What is jazz?” and you're likely to get 100 different answers </li></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>Started in the black ghettos of New Orleans at the end of the 19th century </li></ul><ul><li>Moved up river to Chicago and New York as African Americans migrated north in search of a better life in the 1920’s </li></ul><ul><li>There is little argument that two key elements of jazz are improvisation and swing </li></ul>Scott Joplin Maple Leaf Rag
  12. 17. <ul><li>Most jazz involves a degree of improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Not all improvised music can be called jazz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Grateful Dead rarely played what was written, but they certainly are not considered a jazz band </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not all music found jazz is improvised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duke Ellington wrote some tightly arranged jazz pieces that left no room for improvisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>While improvisation is without a doubt an integral part of jazz music, it is not an absolute </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>Swing is even harder to define </li></ul><ul><li>It is a feeling more than a concrete concept </li></ul><ul><li>Swing is that element that makes you move your body or want to dance </li></ul><ul><li>But, does jazz always swing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No, but most would hesitate to recognize jazz if it doesn’t swing </li></ul></ul>Louis Armstrong & Duke Ellington It Don’t Mean a Thing Glenn Miller It Don’t Mean a Thing Ella Fitzgerald & Duke Ellington It Don’t Mean a Thing
  14. 20. <ul><li>The Blues is the most important musical form in Jazz and Jazz-related music </li></ul><ul><li>Originally blues were very loosely structured songs performed by individual singers, guitarists and banjo players. </li></ul><ul><li>The lyrics were usually sad and dealt with every day issues of slave life </li></ul><ul><li>When the blues spread from the country side to urban centers their content included more happy aspects </li></ul><ul><li>By 1920 three distinct blues formats had developed : the 8 bar blues, the 12 bar blues and the 16 bar blues </li></ul><ul><li>From these three the 12 bar blues quickly became the most popular form </li></ul><ul><li>It is still the most common blues form used by contemporary musicians </li></ul>
  15. 21. <ul><li>The 12 bar blues consists of three phrases . Each phrase is four bars long. </li></ul><ul><li>In its original vocal form : (AAB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A: the 1st phrase makes a statement, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A: the 2nd phrase repeats this statement, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B: the 3rd phrase resolves or completes the statement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For example : </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;From dawn to dusk I work the fields all day .... </li></ul><ul><li>Yeah, from dawn to dusk I work the fields all day .... </li></ul><ul><li>But when the sun is down I rush home to sweet Mae.&quot; </li></ul>Robert Johnson Crossroad Blues Blind Willie McTell Statesboro Blues Eric Clapton Crossroads Alman Brothers Statesboro Blues
  16. 22. <ul><li>It seems there is widespread feeling that blues music is a music of the heart and gut that transcends the need for thought and technique </li></ul><ul><li>and that jazz music requires too much mind to allow the heart any latitude </li></ul><ul><li>There is no clear distinction between the two, just the feel </li></ul><ul><li>Most musicians lump jazz, blues, and gospel music, sometimes even ragtime, all under the same heading </li></ul>
  17. 23. <ul><li>Langston Hughes was one of the first of the Harlem Renaissance poets to incorporate jazz, spirituals and the blues into his writing </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1920’s Hughes steeped himself in the jazz culture of Harlem and began to weave the rhythm and feeling of Harlem jazz into his poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most obvious example of Hughes’ experimentation with new musical forms appears Hughes’ poem “The Weary Blues,” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Published first in 1923 in New York’s Amsterdam News and two years later in Hughes’ first collection The Weary Blues. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 24. <ul><li>Unquestionably the greatest of the vaudeville blues singers </li></ul><ul><li>Brought the emotional intensity, personal involvement, and expression of blues singing into the jazz repertory </li></ul><ul><li>She made almost 200 recordings, of which her remarkable duets with Louis Armstrong are among her best </li></ul><ul><li>She excelled in the performance of slow blues </li></ul>Bessie Smith Backwater Blues
  19. 25. This photo of Bessie Smith, the “Empress of the Blues” was taken in 1925 From: The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz . Ed. Barry Kernfeld. 2nd Ed. New York: Grove’s Dictionaries, Inc., 2002.
  20. 27. <ul><li>A series of laws passed mostly in the south that made separate but equal facilities for whites and blacks </li></ul><ul><li>Made racial discrimination legal </li></ul><ul><li>Created completely separate white and black communities </li></ul>
  21. 28. <ul><li>The major clash of the 1920s had to do with race </li></ul><ul><li>“ Red Summer ”(Bloody Summer) -summer of 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>In Chicago, the African American population more than doubled between 1910 and 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowded neighborhoods heightened tensions between blacks and whites </li></ul>
  22. 29. <ul><li>Eugene Williams, a black boy swimming at a beach, accidentally floated into a “white’s only” area </li></ul><ul><li>Whites threw stones at him, and the boy drowned </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting broke out </li></ul><ul><li>The riot spread through the city and lasted for 13 days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>23 African Americans and 15 whites-died </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>537 people were wounded </li></ul></ul>
  23. 35. A Vandalized House
  24. 36. Moving Out of a Vandalized House
  25. 37. Rioters on State Street in Chicago

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